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Sensors 2015, 15(5), 9756-9772; doi:10.3390/s150509756

Embedded Ultrasonic Transducers for Active and Passive Concrete Monitoring

BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin 12200, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Schumacher
Received: 12 February 2015 / Revised: 27 March 2015 / Accepted: 16 April 2015 / Published: 27 April 2015
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Abstract

Recently developed new transducers for ultrasonic transmission, which can be embedded right into concrete, are now used for non-destructive permanent monitoring of concrete. They can be installed during construction or thereafter. Large volumes of concrete can be monitored for changes of material properties by a limited number of transducers. The transducer design, the main properties as well as installation procedures are presented. It is shown that compressional waves with a central frequency of 62 kHz are mainly generated around the transducer’s axis. The transducer can be used as a transmitter or receiver. Application examples demonstrate that the transducers can be used to monitor concrete conditions parameters (stress, temperature, …) as well as damages in an early state or the detection of acoustic events (e.g., crack opening). Besides application in civil engineering our setups can also be used for model studies in geosciences. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasound; transmission; concrete; damages; cracks; stress ultrasound; transmission; concrete; damages; cracks; stress
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Niederleithinger, E.; Wolf, J.; Mielentz, F.; Wiggenhauser, H.; Pirskawetz, S. Embedded Ultrasonic Transducers for Active and Passive Concrete Monitoring. Sensors 2015, 15, 9756-9772.

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