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Sensors 2015, 15(5), 9773-9790; doi:10.3390/s150509773

Tidal Volume Estimation Using the Blanket Fractal Dimension of the Tracheal Sounds Acquired by Smartphone

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 260 Glenbrook Road, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Received: 5 March 2015 / Revised: 17 April 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 27 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smartphone-Based Sensors for Non-Invasive Physiological Monitoring)
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Abstract

In this paper, we propose the use of blanket fractal dimension (BFD) to estimate the tidal volume from smartphone-acquired tracheal sounds. We collected tracheal sounds with a Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphone, from five (N = 5) healthy volunteers. Each volunteer performed the experiment six times; first to obtain linear and exponential fitting models, and then to fit new data onto the existing models. Thus, the total number of recordings was 30. The estimated volumes were compared to the true values, obtained with a Respitrace system, which was considered as a reference. Since Shannon entropy (SE) is frequently used as a feature in tracheal sound analyses, we estimated the tidal volume from the same sounds by using SE as well. The evaluation of the performed estimation, using BFD and SE methods, was quantified by the normalized root-mean-squared error (NRMSE). The results show that the BFD outperformed the SE (at least twice smaller NRMSE was obtained). The smallest NRMSE error of 15.877% ± 9.246% (mean ± standard deviation) was obtained with the BFD and exponential model. In addition, it was shown that the fitting curves calculated during the first day of experiments could be successfully used for at least the five following days. View Full-Text
Keywords: blanket fractal dimension; tidal volume; tracheal sounds; smartphone blanket fractal dimension; tidal volume; tracheal sounds; smartphone
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reljin, N.; Reyes, B.A.; Chon, K.H. Tidal Volume Estimation Using the Blanket Fractal Dimension of the Tracheal Sounds Acquired by Smartphone. Sensors 2015, 15, 9773-9790.

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