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Sensors 2015, 15(1), 1611-1622; doi:10.3390/s150101611

Imaging of Fluoride Ion in Living Cells and Tissues with a Two-Photon Ratiometric Fluorescence Probe

1
State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
Institute of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 29 December 2014 / Published: 14 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

A reaction-based two-photon (TP) ratiometric fluorescence probe Z2 has been developed and successfully applied to detect and image fluoride ion in living cells and tissues. The Z2 probe was designed designed to utilize an ICT mechanism between n-butylnaphthalimide as a fluorophore and tert-butyldiphenylsilane (TBDPS) as a response group. Upon addition of fluoride ion, the Si-O bond in the Z2 would be cleaved, and then a stronger electron-donating group was released. The fluorescent changes at 450 and 540 nm, respectively, made it possible to achieve ratiometric fluorescence detection. The results indicated that the Z2 could ratiometrically detect and image fluoride ion in living cells and tissues in a depth of 250 μm by two-photon microscopy (TPM). View Full-Text
Keywords: two-photon excited; ratiometric fluorescence; imaging; fluoride two-photon excited; ratiometric fluorescence; imaging; fluoride
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, X.; Wang, J.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X. Imaging of Fluoride Ion in Living Cells and Tissues with a Two-Photon Ratiometric Fluorescence Probe. Sensors 2015, 15, 1611-1622.

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