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Sensors 2014, 14(9), 15880-15899; doi:10.3390/s140915880
Article

An Integrated Low-Power Lock-In Amplifier and Its Application to Gas Detection

1
,
1
,
1,*  and 2
1 Electronics Department, Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro #1, Tonantzintla 72840, Puebla, Mexico 2 Group of Electronic Design, Aragon Institute for Engineering Research, I3A, Facultad de Ciencias, Pedro Cerbuna 12, Zaragoza 50009, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 June 2014 / Revised: 21 July 2014 / Accepted: 22 July 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

This paper presents a new micropower analog lock-in amplifier (LIA) suitable for battery-operated applications thanks to its reduced size and power consumption as well as its operation with single-supply voltage. The proposed LIA was designed in a 0.18 µm CMOS process with a single supply voltage of 1.8 V. Experimental results show a variable DC gain ranging from 24.7 to 42 dB, power consumption of 417 µW and integration area of 0.013 mm2. The LIA performance was demonstrated by measuring carbon monoxide concentrations as low as 1 ppm in dry N2. The experimental results show that the response to CO of the sensing system can be considerably improved by means of the proposed LIA.
Keywords: analog sensor conditioning; lock-in amplifier; phase-sensitive detection; gas sensing; portable applications analog sensor conditioning; lock-in amplifier; phase-sensitive detection; gas sensing; portable applications
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Maya-Hernández, P.M.; Álvarez-Simón, L.C.; Sanz-Pascual, M.T.; Calvo-López, B. An Integrated Low-Power Lock-In Amplifier and Its Application to Gas Detection. Sensors 2014, 14, 15880-15899.

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