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Sensors 2014, 14(11), 20134-20148; doi:10.3390/s141120134

A Rapid Discrimination of Authentic and Unauthentic Radix Angelicae Sinensis Growth Regions by Electronic Nose Coupled with Multivariate Statistical Analyses

1
School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, No.6 Wangjing Zhonghuan South Road, Beijing 100102, China
2
Institute of Forensic Science, Ministry of Public Security, No.17 Muxidi South Street Xicheng District, Beijing 100038, China
3
Yinkou Institute For Drug, NO.29 Qinghua West Street, Xishi District, Yingkou 115100, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2014 / Revised: 18 September 2014 / Accepted: 22 September 2014 / Published: 27 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

Radix Angelicae Sinensis, known as Danggui in China, is an effective and wide applied material in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and it is used in more than 80 composite formulae. Danggui from Minxian County, Gansu Province is the best in quality. To rapidly and nondestructively discriminate Danggui from the authentic region of origin from that from an unauthentic region, an electronic nose coupled with multivariate statistical analyses was developed. Two different feature extraction methods were used to ensure the authentic region and unauthentic region of Danggui origin could be discriminated. One feature extraction method is to capture the average value of the maximum response of the electronic nose sensors (feature extraction method 1). The other one is to combine the maximum response of the sensors with their inter-ratios (feature extraction method 2). Multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were employed. Nineteen samples were analyzed by PCA, SIMCA and HCA. Then the remaining samples (GZM1, SH) were projected onto the SIMCA model to validate the models. The results indicated that, in the use of feature extraction method 2, Danggui from Yunnan Province and Danggui from Gansu Province could be successfully discriminated using the electronic nose coupled with PCA, SIMCA and HCA, which suggested that the electronic-nose system could be used as a simple and rapid technique for the discrimination of Danggui between authentic and unauthentic region of origin. View Full-Text
Keywords: Radix Angelicae Sinensis; electronic nose; authentic region; multivariate statistical analyses Radix Angelicae Sinensis; electronic nose; authentic region; multivariate statistical analyses
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, J.; Wang, W.; Yang, Y.; Yan, Y.; Wang, W.; Wu, H.; Ren, Z. A Rapid Discrimination of Authentic and Unauthentic Radix Angelicae Sinensis Growth Regions by Electronic Nose Coupled with Multivariate Statistical Analyses. Sensors 2014, 14, 20134-20148.

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