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An Improved Algorithm to Generate a Wi-Fi Fingerprint Database for Indoor Positioning
College of Information Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Dongchuang Road 500, Shanghai 200241, China
College of Mathematics, Physics and Information Engineering, Zhejiang Normal University, Yingbin Road 688, Jinhua 321004, China
School of Surveying and Geospatial Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australian
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 June 2013; in revised form: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 August 2013 / Published: 21 August 2013
Abstract: The major problem of Wi-Fi fingerprint-based positioning technology is the signal strength fingerprint database creation and maintenance. The significant temporal variation of received signal strength (RSS) is the main factor responsible for the positioning error. A probabilistic approach can be used, but the RSS distribution is required. The Gaussian distribution or an empirically-derived distribution (histogram) is typically used. However, these distributions are either not always correct or require a large amount of data for each reference point. Double peaks of the RSS distribution have been observed in experiments at some reference points. In this paper a new algorithm based on an improved double-peak Gaussian distribution is proposed. Kurtosis testing is used to decide if this new distribution, or the normal Gaussian distribution, should be applied. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the positioning accuracy, as well as reduce the workload of the off-line data training phase.
Keywords: double-peak Gaussian distribution; kurtosis testing; location fingerprinting; indoor positioning
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Chen, L.; Li, B.; Zhao, K.; Rizos, C.; Zheng, Z. An Improved Algorithm to Generate a Wi-Fi Fingerprint Database for Indoor Positioning. Sensors 2013, 13, 11085-11096.
Chen L, Li B, Zhao K, Rizos C, Zheng Z. An Improved Algorithm to Generate a Wi-Fi Fingerprint Database for Indoor Positioning. Sensors. 2013; 13(8):11085-11096.
Chen, Lina; Li, Binghao; Zhao, Kai; Rizos, Chris; Zheng, Zhengqi. 2013. "An Improved Algorithm to Generate a Wi-Fi Fingerprint Database for Indoor Positioning." Sensors 13, no. 8: 11085-11096.