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Fibre Optic Sensors for Selected Wastewater Characteristics
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 May 2013; in revised form: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Abstract: Demand for online and real-time measurements techniques to meet environmental regulation and treatment compliance are increasing. However the conventional techniques, which involve scheduled sampling and chemical analysis can be expensive and time consuming. Therefore cheaper and faster alternatives to monitor wastewater characteristics are required as alternatives to conventional methods. This paper reviews existing conventional techniques and optical and fibre optic sensors to determine selected wastewater characteristics which are colour, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The review confirms that with appropriate configuration, calibration and fibre features the parameters can be determined with accuracy comparable to conventional method. With more research in this area, the potential for using FOS for online and real-time measurement of more wastewater parameters for various types of industrial effluent are promising.
Keywords: online monitoring; fibre optic; chemical oxygen demand; biological oxygen demand; colour; optical sensor; environmental sensing
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MDPI and ACS Style
Chong, S.S.; Aziz, A.R.A.; Harun, S.W. Fibre Optic Sensors for Selected Wastewater Characteristics. Sensors 2013, 13, 8640-8668.
Chong SS, Aziz ARA, Harun SW. Fibre Optic Sensors for Selected Wastewater Characteristics. Sensors. 2013; 13(7):8640-8668.
Chong, Su S.; Aziz, A. R.A.; Harun, Sulaiman W. 2013. "Fibre Optic Sensors for Selected Wastewater Characteristics." Sensors 13, no. 7: 8640-8668.