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Transverse Susceptibility as a Biosensor for Detection of Au-Fe3O4 Nanoparticle-Embedded Human Embryonic Kidney Cells
Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2013; in revised form: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 3 July 2013
Abstract: We demonstrate the possibility of using a radio-frequency transverse susceptibility (TS) technique based on a sensitive self-resonant tunnel-diode oscillator as a biosensor for detection of cancer cells that have taken up magnetic nanoparticles. This technique can detect changes in frequency on the order of 10 Hz in 10 MHz. Therefore, a small sample of cells that have taken up nanoparticles when placed inside the sample space of the TS probe can yield a signal characteristic of the magnetic nanoparticles. As a proof of the concept, Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with Au (mean size ~60 nm) were synthesized using a micellar method and these nanoparticles were introduced to the medium at different concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL buffer, where they were taken up by human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells via phagocytosis. While the highest concentration of Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles (1 mg/mL) was found to give the strongest TS signal, it is notable that the TS signal of the nanoparticles could still be detected at concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/mL.
Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles; cells; magnetic biosensors
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MDPI and ACS Style
Huls, N.F.; Phan, M.-H.; Kumar, A.; Mohapatra, S.; Mohapatra, S.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H. Transverse Susceptibility as a Biosensor for Detection of Au-Fe3O4 Nanoparticle-Embedded Human Embryonic Kidney Cells. Sensors 2013, 13, 8490-8500.
Huls NF, Phan M-H, Kumar A, Mohapatra S, Mohapatra S, Mukherjee P, Srikanth H. Transverse Susceptibility as a Biosensor for Detection of Au-Fe3O4 Nanoparticle-Embedded Human Embryonic Kidney Cells. Sensors. 2013; 13(7):8490-8500.
Huls, Natalie F.; Phan, Manh-Huong; Kumar, Arun; Mohapatra, Subhra; Mohapatra, Shyam; Mukherjee, Pritish; Srikanth, Hariharan. 2013. "Transverse Susceptibility as a Biosensor for Detection of Au-Fe3O4 Nanoparticle-Embedded Human Embryonic Kidney Cells." Sensors 13, no. 7: 8490-8500.