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A Robust Nonlinear Observer for Real-Time Attitude Estimation Using Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors
Faculty of Electronic, Autonomous University of Puebla (BUAP), Ciudad universitaria, Puebla 72570, Mexico
Control Systems Department, GIPSA-lab laboratory, CNRS-University of Grenoble, ENSE3 BP 46, St Martin d'Hères Cedex 38402, France
Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Circuito Escolar, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 September 2013; in revised form: 22 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 6 November 2013
Abstract: This paper deals with the attitude estimation of a rigid body equipped with angular velocity sensors and reference vector sensors. A quaternion-based nonlinear observer is proposed in order to fuse all information sources and to obtain an accurate estimation of the attitude. It is shown that the observer error dynamics can be separated into two passive subsystems connected in “feedback”. Then, this property is used to show that the error dynamics is input-to-state stable when the measurement disturbance is seen as an input and the error as the state. These results allow one to affirm that the observer is “robustly stable”. The proposed observer is evaluated in real-time with the design and implementation of an Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) based on low-cost MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) Inertial Measure Unit (IMU) and magnetic sensors and a 16-bit microcontroller. The resulting estimates are compared with a high precision motion system to demonstrate its performance.
Keywords: nonlinear attitude observer; quaternion; MEMS IMU; Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS); real-time implementation
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Guerrero-Castellanos, J.F.; Madrigal-Sastre, H.; Durand, S.; Torres, L.; Muñoz-Hernández, G.A. A Robust Nonlinear Observer for Real-Time Attitude Estimation Using Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors. Sensors 2013, 13, 15138-15158.
Guerrero-Castellanos JF, Madrigal-Sastre H, Durand S, Torres L, Muñoz-Hernández GA. A Robust Nonlinear Observer for Real-Time Attitude Estimation Using Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors. Sensors. 2013; 13(11):15138-15158.
Guerrero-Castellanos, José F.; Madrigal-Sastre, Heberto; Durand, Sylvain; Torres, Lizeth; Muñoz-Hernández, German A. 2013. "A Robust Nonlinear Observer for Real-Time Attitude Estimation Using Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors." Sensors 13, no. 11: 15138-15158.