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Simple and Rapid Determination of Ferulic Acid Levels in Food and Cosmetic Samples Using Paper-Based Platforms
Petrochemistry and Polymer Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Electrochemistry and Optical Spectroscopy Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Wattanna, Bangkok, 10110, Thailand
National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals, and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2013; in revised form: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 26 September 2013
Abstract: Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, simple and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the simple, rapid, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples.
Keywords: ferulic acid; paper-based platforms; electrochemical detection; colorimetric detection; TLC separation
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MDPI and ACS Style
Tee-ngam, P.; Nunant, N.; Rattanarat, P.; Siangproh, W.; Chailapakul, O. Simple and Rapid Determination of Ferulic Acid Levels in Food and Cosmetic Samples Using Paper-Based Platforms. Sensors 2013, 13, 13039-13053.
Tee-ngam P, Nunant N, Rattanarat P, Siangproh W, Chailapakul O. Simple and Rapid Determination of Ferulic Acid Levels in Food and Cosmetic Samples Using Paper-Based Platforms. Sensors. 2013; 13(10):13039-13053.
Tee-ngam, Prinjaporn; Nunant, Namthip; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon. 2013. "Simple and Rapid Determination of Ferulic Acid Levels in Food and Cosmetic Samples Using Paper-Based Platforms." Sensors 13, no. 10: 13039-13053.