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Sensors 2012, 12(9), 12220-12234; doi:10.3390/s120912220
Article

Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder

1,†
,
2,†
,
1
,
1
 and
1,*
1 Biosensors and Bioanalysis Lab, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (IQUIBICEN, CONICET), CABA 1428, Argentina 2 Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (CIHIDECAR, CONICET), CABA 1428, Argentina These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 5 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L−1 and 121.4 mg·L−1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication.
Keywords: f-PCA; KNN; milk adulteration; voltammetry; rapid screening methods f-PCA; KNN; milk adulteration; voltammetry; rapid screening methods
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Hilding-Ohlsson, A.; Fauerbach, J.A.; Sacco, N.J.; Bonetto, M.C.; Cortón, E. Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder. Sensors 2012, 12, 12220-12234.

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