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Sensors 2012, 12(9), 12220-12234; doi:10.3390/s120912220
Article

Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder

1,†
, 2,†
, 1
, 1
 and 1,*
Received: 2 July 2012; in revised form: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 5 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract: Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L−1 and 121.4 mg·L−1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication.
Keywords: f-PCA; KNN; milk adulteration; voltammetry; rapid screening methods f-PCA; KNN; milk adulteration; voltammetry; rapid screening methods
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hilding-Ohlsson, A.; Fauerbach, J.A.; Sacco, N.J.; Bonetto, M.C.; Cortón, E. Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder. Sensors 2012, 12, 12220-12234.

AMA Style

Hilding-Ohlsson A, Fauerbach JA, Sacco NJ, Bonetto MC, Cortón E. Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder. Sensors. 2012; 12(9):12220-12234.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A.; Sacco, Natalia J.; Bonetto, M. Celina; Cortón, Eduardo. 2012. "Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder." Sensors 12, no. 9: 12220-12234.


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