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A Comparison between Metaheuristics as Strategies for Minimizing Cyclic Instability in Ambient Intelligence
Division of Research and Postgraduate Studies, Leon Institute of Technology, Leon, Guanajuato 37290, Mexico
Laboratorio Nacional de Informatica Avanzada, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, Mexico
School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex,Wivenhoe Park CO4 3SQ, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2012; in revised form: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Abstract: In this paper we present a comparison between six novel approaches to the fundamental problem of cyclic instability in Ambient Intelligence. These approaches are based on different optimization algorithms, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Bee Swarm Optimization (BSO), micro Particle Swarm Optimization (μ-PSO), Artificial Immune System (AIS), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Mutual Information Maximization for Input Clustering (MIMIC). In order to be able to use these algorithms, we introduced the concept of Average Cumulative Oscillation (ACO), which enabled us to measure the average behavior of the system. This approach has the advantage that it does not need to analyze the topological properties of the system, in particular the loops, which can be computationally expensive. In order to test these algorithms we used the well-known discrete system called the Game of Life for 9, 25, 49 and 289 agents. It was found that PSO and μ-PSO have the best performance in terms of the number of agents locked. These results were confirmed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. This novel and successful approach is very promising and can be used to remove instabilities in real scenarios with a large number of agents (including nomadic agents) and complex interactions and dependencies among them.
Keywords: cyclic instability; ambient intelligence; locking
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Romero, L.A.; Zamudio, V.; Baltazar, R.; Mezura, E.; Sotelo, M.; Callaghan, V. A Comparison between Metaheuristics as Strategies for Minimizing Cyclic Instability in Ambient Intelligence. Sensors 2012, 12, 10990-11012.
Romero LA, Zamudio V, Baltazar R, Mezura E, Sotelo M, Callaghan V. A Comparison between Metaheuristics as Strategies for Minimizing Cyclic Instability in Ambient Intelligence. Sensors. 2012; 12(8):10990-11012.
Romero, Leoncio A.; Zamudio, Victor; Baltazar, Rosario; Mezura, Efren; Sotelo, Marco; Callaghan, Vic. 2012. "A Comparison between Metaheuristics as Strategies for Minimizing Cyclic Instability in Ambient Intelligence." Sensors 12, no. 8: 10990-11012.