Next Article in Journal
A Unifying Review of Bioassay-Guided Fractionation, Effect-Directed Analysis and Related Techniques
Next Article in Special Issue
Design and Analysis of a Compact Precision Positioning Platform Integrating Strain Gauges and the Piezoactuator
Previous Article in Journal
Modelling Carbon Nanotubes-Based Mediatorless Biosensor
Previous Article in Special Issue
Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9161-9180; doi:10.3390/s120709161

The Development of an UAV Borne Direct Georeferenced Photogrammetric Platform for Ground Control Point Free Applications

*  and
Department of Geomatics, National Cheng-Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2012 / Revised: 4 June 2012 / Accepted: 29 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Small Sensor Systems and Components)


To facilitate applications such as environment detection or disaster monitoring, the development of rapid low cost systems for collecting near real time spatial information is very critical. Rapid spatial information collection has become an emerging trend for remote sensing and mapping applications. In this study, a fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-based spatial information acquisition platform that can operate in Ground Control Point (GCP) free environments is developed and evaluated. The proposed UAV based photogrammetric platform has a Direct Georeferencing (DG) module that includes a low cost Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Inertial Navigation System (INS)/ Global Positioning System (GPS) integrated system. The DG module is able to provide GPS single frequency carrier phase measurements for differential processing to obtain sufficient positioning accuracy. All necessary calibration procedures are implemented. Ultimately, a flight test is performed to verify the positioning accuracy in DG mode without using GCPs. The preliminary results of positioning accuracy in DG mode illustrate that horizontal positioning accuracies in the x and y axes are around 5 m at 300 m flight height above the ground. The positioning accuracy of the z axis is below 10 m. Therefore, the proposed platform is relatively safe and inexpensive for collecting critical spatial information for urgent response such as disaster relief and assessment applications where GCPs are not available.
Keywords: direct georeferencing; INS; GPS; UAV direct georeferencing; INS; GPS; UAV
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Chiang, K.-W.; Tsai, M.-L.; Chu, C.-H. The Development of an UAV Borne Direct Georeferenced Photogrammetric Platform for Ground Control Point Free Applications. Sensors 2012, 12, 9161-9180.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert