Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9098-9109; doi:10.3390/s120709098

Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter

Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2012; in revised form: 7 June 2012 / Accepted: 27 June 2012 / Published: 2 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Small Sensor Systems and Components)
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Abstract: PZT ceramics have been widely used in underwater acoustic transducers. However, literature available discussing the design parameters of a miniaturized PZT-based low-duty-cycle transmitter is very limited. This paper discusses some of the design parameters—the backing material, driving voltage, PZT material type, power consumption and the transducer length of a miniaturized acoustic fish tag using a PZT tube. Four different types of PZT were evaluated with respect to the source level, energy consumption and bandwidth of the transducer. The effect of the tube length on the source level is discussed. The results demonstrate that ultralow-density closed-cell foam is the best backing material for the PZT tube. The Navy Type VI PZTs provide the best source level with relatively low energy consumption and that a low transducer capacitance is preferred for high efficiency. A 35% reduction in the transducer length results in 2 dB decrease in source level.
Keywords: miniaturized transmitter; underwater acoustic transmitter; piezoelectric ceramic; PZT; piezoelectric transducer; transducer power consumption; fish tag

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, H.; Deng, Z.D.; Yuan, Y.; Carlson, T.J. Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter. Sensors 2012, 12, 9098-9109.

AMA Style

Li H, Deng ZD, Yuan Y, Carlson TJ. Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter. Sensors. 2012; 12(7):9098-9109.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J. 2012. "Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter." Sensors 12, no. 7: 9098-9109.

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