Abstract: We have successfully demonstrated video-rate CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD)-based cameras for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) by applying innovative FLIM algorithms. We also review and compare several time-domain techniques and solid-state FLIM systems, and adapt the proposed algorithms for massive CMOS SPAD-based arrays and hardware implementations. The theoretical error equations are derived and their performances are demonstrated on the data obtained from 0.13 μm CMOS SPAD arrays and the multiple-decay data obtained from scanning PMT systems. In vivo two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging data of FITC-albumin labeled vasculature of a P22 rat carcinosarcoma (BD9 rat window chamber) are used to test how different algorithms perform on bi-decay data. The proposed techniques are capable of producing lifetime images with enough contrast.
Keywords: fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy; FLIM; CMOS; single-photon avalanche diode; single-decay; multi-decay; time-domain FLIM; lifetime based sensing
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Li, D.-U.; Ameer-Beg, S.; Arlt, J.; Tyndall, D.; Walker, R.; Matthews, D.R.; Visitkul, V.; Richardson, J.; Henderson, R.K. Time-Domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Techniques Suitable for Solid-State Imaging Sensor Arrays. Sensors 2012, 12, 5650-5669.
Li D-U, Ameer-Beg S, Arlt J, Tyndall D, Walker R, Matthews DR, Visitkul V, Richardson J, Henderson RK. Time-Domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Techniques Suitable for Solid-State Imaging Sensor Arrays. Sensors. 2012; 12(5):5650-5669.
Li, David Day-Uei; Ameer-Beg, Simon; Arlt, Jochen; Tyndall, David; Walker, Richard; Matthews, Daniel R.; Visitkul, Viput; Richardson, Justin; Henderson, Robert K. 2012. "Time-Domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Techniques Suitable for Solid-State Imaging Sensor Arrays." Sensors 12, no. 5: 5650-5669.