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Sensors 2012, 12(5), 5996-6022; doi:10.3390/s120505996
Review

A Critical Review of Glucose Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanomaterials: Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

1,2,* , 1
,
1
,
2
,
3
 and
1,4
1 Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0FA, UK 2 School of Urban Development and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209, China 3 Brunel Institute for Bioengineering, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH, UK 4 Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2012 / Revised: 18 April 2012 / Accepted: 2 May 2012 / Published: 10 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing at the Nano-Scale: Chemical and Bio-Sensing)
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Abstract

There has been an explosion of research into the physical and chemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterials, since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by Iijima in 1991. Carbon nanomaterials offer unique advantages in several areas, like high surface-volume ratio, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability and strong mechanical strength, and are thus frequently being incorporated into sensing elements. Carbon nanomaterial-based sensors generally have higher sensitivities and a lower detection limit than conventional ones. In this review, a brief history of glucose biosensors is firstly presented. The carbon nanotube and grapheme-based biosensors, are introduced in Sections 3 and 4, respectively, which cover synthesis methods, up-to-date sensing approaches and nonenzymatic hybrid sensors. Finally, we briefly outline the current status and future direction for carbon nanomaterials to be used in the sensing area.
Keywords: glucose biosensor; carbon nanotube; graphene; non-enzymatic sensor; nanotechnology glucose biosensor; carbon nanotube; graphene; non-enzymatic sensor; nanotechnology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Zhu, Z.; Garcia-Gancedo, L.; Flewitt, A.J.; Xie, H.; Moussy, F.; Milne, W.I. A Critical Review of Glucose Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanomaterials: Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene. Sensors 2012, 12, 5996-6022.

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