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Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3243-3252; doi:10.3390/s120303243

Comparative Assessment of the Effect of Synthetic and Natural Fungicides on Soil Respiration

Jr 1, 2 and 1,*
Received: 11 January 2012 / Revised: 29 February 2012 / Accepted: 2 March 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing of Organic Pollution in Soil, Air, Water and Food)
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As toxic pesticide residues may persist in agricultural soils and cause environmental pollution, research on natural fungicides to replace the synthetic compounds is currently increasing. The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley—GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol—AVEC). The induced soil respiration parameter was followed during 28 days after soil treatment either with chlorathalonil (11 µg·g−1), or the methanolic fraction from Polymnia sonchifolia extraction (300 µg·g−1), and 14C-glucose (4.0 mg and 5.18 Bq of 14C-glucose g−1). The 14C-CO2 produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments. The methanolic fraction of the plant extract inhibited (2.2%) and stimulated (1.8%) the respiration of GHE and AVEC, respectively, but the synthetic chlorothalonil caused 16.4% and 2.6% inhibition of the respiration, respectively of the GHE and AVEC soils. As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.
Keywords: soil bioactivity; substrate-induced respiration; chlorothalonyl; Polymnia sonchifolia soil bioactivity; substrate-induced respiration; chlorothalonyl; Polymnia sonchifolia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Stefani, A., Jr; Felício, J.D.; Andréa, M.M. Comparative Assessment of the Effect of Synthetic and Natural Fungicides on Soil Respiration. Sensors 2012, 12, 3243-3252.

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