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Comparative Assessment of the Effect of Synthetic and Natural Fungicides on Soil Respiration
Lab. de Ecologia de Agroquímicos, Instituto Biológico, Av. Conselheiro Rodrigues Alves 1252, São Paulo, SP CEP 04014-002, Brazil
Lab. de Química e Farmacologia de Produtos Naturais, Instituto Biológico, Av. Conselheiro Rodrigues Alves 1252, São Paulo, SP CEP 04014-002, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2012; in revised form: 29 February 2012 / Accepted: 2 March 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
Abstract: As toxic pesticide residues may persist in agricultural soils and cause environmental pollution, research on natural fungicides to replace the synthetic compounds is currently increasing. The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley—GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol—AVEC). The induced soil respiration parameter was followed during 28 days after soil treatment either with chlorathalonil (11 µg·g−1), or the methanolic fraction from Polymnia sonchifolia extraction (300 µg·g−1), and 14C-glucose (4.0 mg and 5.18 Bq of 14C-glucose g−1). The 14C-CO2 produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments. The methanolic fraction of the plant extract inhibited (2.2%) and stimulated (1.8%) the respiration of GHE and AVEC, respectively, but the synthetic chlorothalonil caused 16.4% and 2.6% inhibition of the respiration, respectively of the GHE and AVEC soils. As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.
Keywords: soil bioactivity; substrate-induced respiration; chlorothalonyl; Polymnia sonchifolia
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Stefani, A., Jr; Felício, J.D.; Andréa, M.M. Comparative Assessment of the Effect of Synthetic and Natural Fungicides on Soil Respiration. Sensors 2012, 12, 3243-3252.
Stefani A, Jr, Felício JD, Andréa MM. Comparative Assessment of the Effect of Synthetic and Natural Fungicides on Soil Respiration. Sensors. 2012; 12(3):3243-3252.
Stefani, Angelo, Jr; Felício, Joanna D’Arc; Andréa, Mara M. de. 2012. "Comparative Assessment of the Effect of Synthetic and Natural Fungicides on Soil Respiration." Sensors 12, no. 3: 3243-3252.