Sensors 2011, 11(6), 5543-5560; doi:10.3390/s110605543
Article

Sensing the Structural Differences in Cellulose from Apple and Bacterial Cell Wall Materials by Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy

Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Science, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 March 2011; in revised form: 3 April 2011 / Accepted: 7 April 2011 / Published: 25 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Agriculture and Forestry)
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Abstract: Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used for assessment of structural differences of celluloses of various origins. Investigated celluloses were: bacterial celluloses cultured in presence of pectin and/or xyloglucan, as well as commercial celluloses and cellulose extracted from apple parenchyma. FT-IR spectra were used to estimate of the Iβ content, whereas Raman spectra were used to evaluate the degree of crystallinity of the cellulose. The crystallinity index (XCRAMAN%) varied from −25% for apple cellulose to 53% for microcrystalline commercial cellulose. Considering bacterial cellulose, addition of xyloglucan has an impact on the percentage content of cellulose Iβ. However, addition of only xyloglucan or only pectins to pure bacterial cellulose both resulted in a slight decrease of crystallinity. However, culturing bacterial cellulose in the presence of mixtures of xyloglucan and pectins results in an increase of crystallinity. The results confirmed that the higher degree of crystallinity, the broader the peak around 913 cm−1. Among all bacterial celluloses the bacterial cellulose cultured in presence of xyloglucan and pectin (BCPX) has the most similar structure to those observed in natural primary cell walls.
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; FT-IR spectroscopy; cellulose; pectin; xyloglucan; Gluconacetobacter xylinus; crystallinity degree

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MDPI and ACS Style

Szymańska-Chargot, M.; Cybulska, J.; Zdunek, A. Sensing the Structural Differences in Cellulose from Apple and Bacterial Cell Wall Materials by Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy. Sensors 2011, 11, 5543-5560.

AMA Style

Szymańska-Chargot M, Cybulska J, Zdunek A. Sensing the Structural Differences in Cellulose from Apple and Bacterial Cell Wall Materials by Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy. Sensors. 2011; 11(6):5543-5560.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Cybulska, Justyna; Zdunek, Artur. 2011. "Sensing the Structural Differences in Cellulose from Apple and Bacterial Cell Wall Materials by Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy." Sensors 11, no. 6: 5543-5560.

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