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Compact Electron Gun Based on Secondary Emission Through Ionic Bombardment
Onera-The French Aerospace Lab, F-91761 Palaiseau, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2011; in revised form: 2 May 2011 / Accepted: 4 April 2011 / Published: 11 May 2011
Abstract: We present a new compact electron gun based on the secondary emission through ionic bombardment principle. The driving parameters to develop such a gun are to obtain a quite small electron gun for an in-flight instrument performing Electron Beam Fluorescence measurements (EBF) on board of a reentry vehicle in the upper atmosphere. These measurements are useful to characterize the gas flow around the vehicle in terms of gas chemical composition, temperatures and velocity of the flow which usually presents thermo-chemical non-equilibrium. Such an instrument can also be employed to characterize the upper atmosphere if placed on another carrier like a balloon. In ground facilities, it appears as a more practical tool to characterize flows in wind tunnel studies or as an alternative to complex electron guns in industrial processes requiring an electron beam. We describe in this paper the gun which has been developed as well as its different features which have been characterized in the laboratory.
Keywords: electron gun; electron beam fluorescence; secondary electrons; optical diagnostics; low density gas flow; density measurements; temperature measurements
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Diop, B.; Bonnet, J.; Schmid, T.; Mohamed, A. Compact Electron Gun Based on Secondary Emission Through Ionic Bombardment. Sensors 2011, 11, 5202-5214.
Diop B, Bonnet J, Schmid T, Mohamed A. Compact Electron Gun Based on Secondary Emission Through Ionic Bombardment. Sensors. 2011; 11(5):5202-5214.
Diop, Babacar; Bonnet, Jean; Schmid, Thomas; Mohamed, Ajmal. 2011. "Compact Electron Gun Based on Secondary Emission Through Ionic Bombardment." Sensors 11, no. 5: 5202-5214.