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Sensors 2011, 11(5), 5183-5201; doi:10.3390/s110505183
Article

A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks

1
, 1
, 2
 and 1,*
Received: 23 March 2011; in revised form: 27 April 2011 / Accepted: 10 May 2011 / Published: 11 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract: Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC) for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency.
Keywords: MAC protocol; cross-layer; duty cycle; pipeline feature; wireless sensor networks MAC protocol; cross-layer; duty cycle; pipeline feature; wireless sensor networks
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tong, F.; Xie, R.; Shu, L.; Kim, Y.-C. A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2011, 11, 5183-5201.

AMA Style

Tong F, Xie R, Shu L, Kim Y-C. A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2011; 11(5):5183-5201.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tong, Fei; Xie, Rong; Shu, Lei; Kim, Young-Chon. 2011. "A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks." Sensors 11, no. 5: 5183-5201.


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