Sensors 2010, 10(6), 5899-5926; doi:10.3390/s100605899
Article

GPS-Free Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

1 School of Computer Science and Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048, China 2 Xi’an Communication Institute, Xi’an 710106, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2010; in revised form: 26 April 2010 / Accepted: 20 May 2010 / Published: 9 June 2010
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Abstract: Localization is one of the most fundamental problems in wireless sensor networks, since the locations of the sensor nodes are critical to both network operations and most application level tasks. A GPS-free localization scheme for wireless sensor networks is presented in this paper. First, we develop a standardized clustering-based approach for the local coordinate system formation wherein a multiplication factor is introduced to regulate the number of master and slave nodes and the degree of connectivity among master nodes. Second, using homogeneous coordinates, we derive a transformation matrix between two Cartesian coordinate systems to efficiently merge them into a global coordinate system and effectively overcome the flip ambiguity problem. The algorithm operates asynchronously without a centralized controller; and does not require that the location of the sensors be known a priori. A set of parameter-setting guidelines for the proposed algorithm is derived based on a probability model and the energy requirements are also investigated. A simulation analysis on a specific numerical example is conducted to validate the mathematical analytical results. We also compare the performance of the proposed algorithm under a variety multiplication factor, node density and node communication radius scenario. Experiments show that our algorithm outperforms existing mechanisms in terms of accuracy and convergence time.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; localization; GPS-free; local coordinate system; global coordinate system; matrix transform

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.; Xu, Q. GPS-Free Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2010, 10, 5899-5926.

AMA Style

Wang L, Xu Q. GPS-Free Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2010; 10(6):5899-5926.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Lei; Xu, Qingzheng. 2010. "GPS-Free Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks." Sensors 10, no. 6: 5899-5926.

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