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Sensors 2010, 10(6), 5899-5926; doi:10.3390/s100605899

GPS-Free Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

1 School of Computer Science and Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048, China 2 Xi’an Communication Institute, Xi’an 710106, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2010 / Revised: 26 April 2010 / Accepted: 20 May 2010 / Published: 9 June 2010


Localization is one of the most fundamental problems in wireless sensor networks, since the locations of the sensor nodes are critical to both network operations and most application level tasks. A GPS-free localization scheme for wireless sensor networks is presented in this paper. First, we develop a standardized clustering-based approach for the local coordinate system formation wherein a multiplication factor is introduced to regulate the number of master and slave nodes and the degree of connectivity among master nodes. Second, using homogeneous coordinates, we derive a transformation matrix between two Cartesian coordinate systems to efficiently merge them into a global coordinate system and effectively overcome the flip ambiguity problem. The algorithm operates asynchronously without a centralized controller; and does not require that the location of the sensors be known a priori. A set of parameter-setting guidelines for the proposed algorithm is derived based on a probability model and the energy requirements are also investigated. A simulation analysis on a specific numerical example is conducted to validate the mathematical analytical results. We also compare the performance of the proposed algorithm under a variety multiplication factor, node density and node communication radius scenario. Experiments show that our algorithm outperforms existing mechanisms in terms of accuracy and convergence time.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; localization; GPS-free; local coordinate system; global coordinate system; matrix transform wireless sensor networks; localization; GPS-free; local coordinate system; global coordinate system; matrix transform
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Wang, L.; Xu, Q. GPS-Free Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2010, 10, 5899-5926.

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