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Wireless Sensor Network Deployment for Monitoring Wildlife Passages
Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Technical University of Cartagena, Campus Muralla del Mar, E-30202, Cartagena, Spain
Department of Telecommunications, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Department of Conservation Biology, Estación Biológica de Doñana, CSIC, Avda. Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092, Sevilla, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 February 2010; in revised form: 21 May 2010 / Accepted: 23 July 2010 / Published: 3 August 2010
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are being deployed in very diverse application scenarios, including rural and forest environments. In these particular contexts, specimen protection and conservation is a challenge, especially in natural reserves, dangerous locations or hot spots of these reserves (i.e., roads, railways, and other civil infrastructures). This paper proposes and studies a WSN based system for generic target (animal) tracking in the surrounding area of wildlife passages built to establish safe ways for animals to cross transportation infrastructures. In addition, it allows target identification through the use of video sensors connected to strategically deployed nodes. This deployment is designed on the basis of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, but it increases the lifetime of the nodes through an appropriate scheduling. The system has been evaluated for the particular scenario of wildlife monitoring in passages across roads. For this purpose, different schemes have been simulated in order to find the most appropriate network operational parameters. Moreover, a novel prototype, provided with motion detector sensors, has also been developed and its design feasibility demonstrated. Original software modules providing new functionalities have been implemented and included in this prototype. Finally, main performance evaluation results of the whole system are presented and discussed in depth.
Keywords: wireless sensor network; simulation; tracking; wildlife monitoring
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Garcia-Sanchez, A.-J.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Losilla, F.; Kulakowski, P.; Garcia-Haro, J.; Rodríguez, A.; López-Bao, J.-V.; Palomares, F. Wireless Sensor Network Deployment for Monitoring Wildlife Passages. Sensors 2010, 10, 7236-7262.
Garcia-Sanchez A-J, Garcia-Sanchez F, Losilla F, Kulakowski P, Garcia-Haro J, Rodríguez A, López-Bao J-V, Palomares F. Wireless Sensor Network Deployment for Monitoring Wildlife Passages. Sensors. 2010; 10(8):7236-7262.
Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Losilla, Fernando; Kulakowski, Pawel; Garcia-Haro, Joan; Rodríguez, Alejandro; López-Bao, José-Vicente; Palomares, Francisco. 2010. "Wireless Sensor Network Deployment for Monitoring Wildlife Passages." Sensors 10, no. 8: 7236-7262.