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Sensors 2010, 10(6), 5642-5667; doi:10.3390/s100605642

Methodology of Pulsed Photoacoustics and Its Application to Probe Photosystems and Receptors

1,*  and 2,*
1 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747, USA 2 Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 February 2010 / Revised: 27 May 2010 / Accepted: 27 May 2010 / Published: 3 June 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing)
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We review recent advances in the methodology of pulsed time-resolved photoacoustics and its application to studies of photosynthetic reaction centers and membrane receptors such as the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin. The experimental parameters accessible to photoacoustics include molecular volume change and photoreaction enthalpy change. Light-driven volume change secondary to protein conformational changes or electrostriction is directly related to the photoreaction and thus can be a useful measurement of activity and function. The enthalpy changes of the photochemical reactions observed can be measured directly by photoacoustics. With the measurement of enthalpy change, the reaction entropy can also be calculated when free energy is known. Dissecting the free energy of a photoreaction into enthalpic and entropic components may provide critical information about photoactivation mechanisms of photosystems and photoreceptors. The potential limitations and future applications of time-resolved photoacoustics are also discussed.
Keywords: receptor; photoactivation; rhodopsin; photosynthesis; photoacoustics receptor; photoactivation; rhodopsin; photosynthesis; photoacoustics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Hou, H.J.; Sakmar, T.P. Methodology of Pulsed Photoacoustics and Its Application to Probe Photosystems and Receptors. Sensors 2010, 10, 5642-5667.

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