Abstract: Over the past two decades, there has been an increasing trend towards miniaturization of both biological and chemical sensors and their integration with miniaturized sample pre-processing and analysis systems. These miniaturized lab-on-chip devices have several functional advantages including low cost, their ability to analyze smaller samples, faster analysis time, suitability for automation, and increased reliability and repeatability. Electrical based sensing methods that transduce biological or chemical signals into the electrical domain are a dominant part of the lab-on-chip devices. A vital part of any electrochemical sensing system is the reference electrode, which is a probe that is capable of measuring the potential on the solution side of an electrochemical interface. Research on miniaturization of this crucial component and analysis of the parameters that affect its performance, stability and lifetime, is sparse. In this paper, we present the basic electrochemistry and thermodynamics of these reference electrodes and illustrate the uses of reference electrodes in electrochemical and biological measurements. Different electrochemical systems that are used as reference electrodes will be presented, and an overview of some contemporary advances in electrode miniaturization and their performance will be provided.
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Shinwari, M.W.; Zhitomirsky, D.; Deen, I.A.; Selvaganapathy, P.R.; Deen, M.J.; Landheer, D. Microfabricated Reference Electrodes and their Biosensing Applications. Sensors 2010, 10, 1679-1715.
Shinwari MW, Zhitomirsky D, Deen IA, Selvaganapathy PR, Deen MJ, Landheer D. Microfabricated Reference Electrodes and their Biosensing Applications. Sensors. 2010; 10(3):1679-1715.
Shinwari, M. Waleed; Zhitomirsky, David; Deen, Imran A.; Selvaganapathy, P. R.; Deen, M. Jamal; Landheer, D. 2010. "Microfabricated Reference Electrodes and their Biosensing Applications." Sensors 10, no. 3: 1679-1715.