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Detection of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Department of Chemical Engineering, I-Shou University, No. 1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Rd., Dashu Township, Kaohsiung County 840, Taiwan
Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan
Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, No.8, Yi-Da Road, Jiau-shu Tsuen, Yan-chau Shiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, E-Da Hospital; No.1, Yi-Da Road, Jiau-shu Tsuen, Yan-chau Shiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2010; in revised form: 10 December 2010 / Accepted: 11 December 2010 / Published: 20 December 2010
Abstract: Current methods for diagnosing early stage osteoarthritis (OA) based on the magnetic resonance imaging and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods are specific, but require specialized laboratory facilities and highly trained personal to obtain a definitive result. In this work, a user friendly and non-invasive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor method has been developed to detect Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) for early stage OA diagnosis. This QCM immunosensor was fabricated to immobilize COMP antibodies utilizing the self-assembled monolayer technique. The surface properties of the immunosensor were characterized by its FTIR and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The feasibility study was based on urine samples obtained from 41 volunteers. Experiments were carried out in a flow system and the reproducibility of the electrodes was evaluated by the impedance measured by EIS. Its potential dynamically monitored the immunoreaction processes and could increase the efficiency and sensitivity of COMP detection in laboratory-cultured preparations and clinical samples. The frequency responses of the QCM immunosensor changed from 6 kHz when testing 50 ng/mL COMP concentration. The linear regression equation of frequency shift and COMP concentration was determined as: y = 0.0872 x + 1.2138 (R2 = 0.9957). The COMP in urine was also determined by both QCM and EIS for comparison. A highly sensitive, user friendly and cost effective analytical method for the early stage OA diagnosis has thus been successfully developed.
Keywords: immunosensor; quartz crystal microbalance (QCM); cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP); urinary biomarker
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Wang, S.-H.; Shen, C.-Y.; Weng, T.-C.; Lin, P.-H.; Yang, J.-J.; Chen, I.-F.; Kuo, S.-M.; Chang, S.-J.; Tu, Y.-K.; Kao, Y.-H.; Hung, C.-H. Detection of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Sensors 2010, 10, 11633-11643.
Wang S-H, Shen C-Y, Weng T-C, Lin P-H, Yang J-J, Chen I-F, Kuo S-M, Chang S-J, Tu Y-K, Kao Y-H, Hung C-H. Detection of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Sensors. 2010; 10(12):11633-11643.
Wang, Shih-Han; Shen, Chi-Yen; Weng, Ting-Chan; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Yang, Jia-Jyun; Chen, I-Fen; Kuo, Shyh-Ming; Chang, Shwu-Jen; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Kao, Yu-Hsien; Hung, Chih-Hsin. 2010. "Detection of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance." Sensors 10, no. 12: 11633-11643.