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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1682; doi:10.3390/ijms18081682

Sympathetic Overactivity in Chronic Kidney Disease: Consequences and Mechanisms

Department of Kinesiology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
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Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease 2017)
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Abstract

The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide, with more than 26 million people suffering from CKD in the United States alone. More patients with CKD die of cardiovascular complications than progress to dialysis. Over 80% of CKD patients have hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another common, perhaps underappreciated, feature of CKD is an overactive sympathetic nervous system. This elevation in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) not only contributes to hypertension but also plays a detrimental role in the progression of CKD independent of any increase in blood pressure. Indeed, high SNA is associated with poor prognosis and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality independent of its effect on blood pressure. This brief review will discuss some of the consequences of sympathetic overactivity and highlight some of the potential pathways contributing to chronically elevated SNA in CKD. Mechanisms leading to chronic sympathoexcitation in CKD are complex, multifactorial and to date, not completely understood. Identification of the mechanisms and/or signals leading to sympathetic overactivity in CKD are crucial for development of effective therapeutic targets to reduce the increased cardiovascular risk in this patient group. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitric oxide; asymmetric dimethylarginine; blood pressure; oxidative stress; sympathetic outflow; hypertension; muscle sympathetic nerve activity; cardiovascular disease; angiotensin II nitric oxide; asymmetric dimethylarginine; blood pressure; oxidative stress; sympathetic outflow; hypertension; muscle sympathetic nerve activity; cardiovascular disease; angiotensin II
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaur, J.; Young, B.E.; Fadel, P.J. Sympathetic Overactivity in Chronic Kidney Disease: Consequences and Mechanisms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1682.

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