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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1702; doi:10.3390/ijms18081702

Novel Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease and the Prediction of Its Outcome

1
Department of Nephrology, Hypertension and Family Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 113, 90-549 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Nephrology, Hypertension and Family Medicine, WAM Teaching Hospital, Zeromskiego 113, 90-549 Lodz, Poland
3
I Department of Urology, Medical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 113, 90-549 Lodz, Poland
4
Palliative Medicine Unit, Chair of Oncology, Medical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 113, 90-549 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease 2017)
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Abstract

In its early stages, symptoms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are usually not apparent. Significant reduction of the kidney function is the first obvious sign of disease. If diagnosed early (stages 1 to 3), the progression of CKD can be altered and complications reduced. In stages 4 and 5 extensive kidney damage is observed, which usually results in end-stage renal failure. Currently, the diagnosis of CKD is made usually on the levels of blood urea and serum creatinine (sCr), however, sCr has been shown to be lacking high predictive value. Due to the development of genomics, epigenetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, the introduction of novel techniques will allow for the identification of novel biomarkers in renal diseases. This review presents some new possible biomarkers in the diagnosis of CKD and in the prediction of outcome, including asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), uromodulin, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), miRNA, ncRNA, and lincRNA biomarkers and proteomic and metabolomic biomarkers. Complicated pathomechanisms of CKD development and progression require not a single marker but their combination in order to mirror all types of alterations occurring in the course of this disease. It seems that in the not so distant future, conventional markers may be exchanged for new ones, however, confirmation of their efficacy, sensitivity and specificity as well as the reduction of analysis costs are required. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; biomarkers; ADMA; SDMA; uromodulin; KIM-1; NGAL; miRNA; ncRNA; lincRNA and proteomic and metabolomic biomarkers chronic kidney disease; biomarkers; ADMA; SDMA; uromodulin; KIM-1; NGAL; miRNA; ncRNA; lincRNA and proteomic and metabolomic biomarkers
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Rysz, J.; Gluba-Brzózka, A.; Franczyk, B.; Jabłonowski, Z.; Ciałkowska-Rysz, A. Novel Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease and the Prediction of Its Outcome. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1702.

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