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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1650; doi:10.3390/ijms18081650

Evolution of Influenza A Virus by Mutation and Re-Assortment

1
Key Laboratory of Fujian-Taiwan Animal Pathogen Biology, College of Animal Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
2
CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
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Abstract

Influenza A virus (IAV), a highly infectious respiratory pathogen, has continued to be a significant threat to global public health. To complete their life cycle, influenza viruses have evolved multiple strategies to interact with a host. A large number of studies have revealed that the evolution of influenza A virus is mainly mediated through the mutation of the virus itself and the re-assortment of viral genomes derived from various strains. The evolution of influenza A virus through these mechanisms causes worldwide annual epidemics and occasional pandemics. Importantly, influenza A virus can evolve from an animal infected pathogen to a human infected pathogen. The highly pathogenic influenza virus has resulted in stupendous economic losses due to its morbidity and mortality both in human and animals. Influenza viruses fall into a category of viruses that can cause zoonotic infection with stable adaptation to human, leading to sustained horizontal transmission. The rapid mutations of influenza A virus result in the loss of vaccine optimal efficacy, and challenge the complete eradication of the virus. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of influenza A virus evolution caused by the mutation and re-assortment of viral genomes. In addition, we discuss the specific mechanisms by which the virus evolves. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza A virus; mutation; re-assortment; virus-host interaction influenza A virus; mutation; re-assortment; virus-host interaction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shao, W.; Li, X.; Goraya, M.U.; Wang, S.; Chen, J.-L. Evolution of Influenza A Virus by Mutation and Re-Assortment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1650.

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