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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1423; doi:10.3390/ijms18071423

Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Allyl Isothiocyanate through Attenuation of JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α Signaling

Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy and Gachon Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gachon University, #191, Hambakmoero, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21936, Korea
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Received: 27 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Abstract

Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), present in Wasabia japonica (wasabi), is an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from the precursor sinigrin, which is a glucosinolate present in vegetables of the Brassica family. Traditionally, it has been used to treat rheumatic arthralgia, blood circulation, and pain. This study focuses on its anti-apoptotic activity through the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, we assessed its neuroprotective efficacy, which it achieves through the upregulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Pretreatment with AITC significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) production in activated microglia, and increased the nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma cells. AITC inhibited the nuclear factor (NF-κB-mediated transcription by modulating mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, particularly downregulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, which was followed by a reduction in the TNF-α expression in activated microglia. This promising effect of AITC in controlling JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α cross-linking maintains the Bcl-2 gene family and protects neuroblastoma cells from activated microglia-induced toxicity. These findings provide novel insights into the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of AITC on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in neurodegeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: allyl isothiocyanate; microglia; neuron; astrocyte; neuroinflammation; neuroprotection allyl isothiocyanate; microglia; neuron; astrocyte; neuroinflammation; neuroprotection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Subedi, L.; Venkatesan, R.; Kim, S.Y. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Allyl Isothiocyanate through Attenuation of JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α Signaling. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1423.

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