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Special Issue "Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Paula Andrade

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, Porto 4050-313, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +351-226093390
Interests: metabolite profiling of natural matrices; natural agents for inflammation; neurodegenerative disorders
Guest Editor
Dr. Patrícia Valentão

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, Porto 4050-313, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +351-226093390
Interests: metabolite profiling of natural matrices, marine and terrestrial; evaluation of bioactive agents from natural sources; marine organisms as source of bioactive agents; natural anti-inflammatory agents; neurodegenerative diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammation is the organism’s natural response to stimuli that are perceived as harmful, from germs, toxins, environmental pollutants, to injury and stress, among others. This complex process involves immune, vascular and cellular biochemical reactions. At a damaged site, the process starts with the migration of immune cells from blood vessels and release of mediators, followed by recruitment of inflammatory cells and release of various oxidative agents and pro-inflammatory cytokines, arachidonic acid playing a pivotal role. Normal inflammation is self-limiting, but aberrant resolution and prolonged inflammation lead to chronic disorders, as excessive oxidants and inflammatory mediators have deleterious effects, including toxicity, loss of barrier function, abnormal cell proliferation, inhibiting normal function of tissues and organs, finally leading to systemic disorders. The search of new anti-inflammatory drugs has been a current preoccupation, due to the need of effective drugs, with less adverse reactions than those used nowadays. Concerning this issue, there has been increasing awareness of the potential interest in natural products. This Special Issue is devoted to the exploitation of natural matrices as sources of new anti-inflammatory molecules and their mechanism of action.

Prof. Dr. Paula B. Andrade
Prof. Dr. Patrícia Valentão
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • anti-inflammatory
  • arachidonic acid
  • cytokines
  • eicosanoids
  • gene expression
  • inflammatory cells
  • inflammatory enzymes
  • natural products
  • transcription factors

Published Papers (27 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Licochalcone A Prevents the Loss of Dopaminergic Neurons by Inhibiting Microglial Activation in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Parkinson’s Disease Models
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2043; doi:10.3390/ijms18102043
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
The neuroprotective effects of Licochalcone A (Lico.A), a flavonoid isolated from the herb licorice, in Parkinson’s disease (PD) have not been elucidated. The prominent pathological feature of PD is the loss of dopaminergic neurons. The crucial role of neuroinflammation induced by activated microglia
[...] Read more.
The neuroprotective effects of Licochalcone A (Lico.A), a flavonoid isolated from the herb licorice, in Parkinson’s disease (PD) have not been elucidated. The prominent pathological feature of PD is the loss of dopaminergic neurons. The crucial role of neuroinflammation induced by activated microglia in dopaminergic neurodegeneration has been validated. In this study, we explore the therapeutic effects of Lico.A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD models in vivo and in vitro. We find that Lico.A significantly inhibits LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators and microglial activation by blocking the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 in BV-2 cells. In addition, through cultured primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cell experiments, we illustrate that Lico.A attenuates the decrease in [3H] dopamine (DA) uptake and the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in LPS-induced PD models in vitro. Furthermore, LPS intoxication in rats results in microglial activation, dopaminergic neurodegeneration and significant behavioral deficits in vivo. Lico.A treatment prevents microglial activation and reduction of dopaminergic neuron and ameliorates PD-like behavioral impairments. Thus, these results demonstrate for the first time that the neuroprotective effects of Lico.A are associated with microglia and anti-inflammatory effects in PD models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Rhein Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Mouse Blastocysts and Has Immunotoxic Effects during Embryonic Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2018; doi:10.3390/ijms18092018
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Rhein, a glucoside chemical compound found in a traditional Chinese medicine derived from the roots of rhubarb, induces cell apoptosis and is considered to have high potential as an antitumor drug. Several previous studies showed that rhein can inhibit cell proliferation and trigger
[...] Read more.
Rhein, a glucoside chemical compound found in a traditional Chinese medicine derived from the roots of rhubarb, induces cell apoptosis and is considered to have high potential as an antitumor drug. Several previous studies showed that rhein can inhibit cell proliferation and trigger mitochondria-related or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent apoptotic processes. However, the side effects of rhein on pre- and post-implantation embryonic development remain unclear. Here, we show that rhein has cytotoxic effects on blastocyst-stage mouse embryos and induces oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in mouse fetuses. Blastocysts incubated with 5–20 μM rhein showed significant cell apoptosis, as well as decreases in their inner cell mass cell numbers and total cell numbers. An in vitro development assay showed that rhein affected the developmental potentials of both pre- and post-implantation embryos. Incubation of blastocysts with 5–20 μM rhein was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight in an embryo transfer assay. Importantly, in an in vivo model, intravenous injection of dams with rhein (1, 3, and 5 mg/kg body weight/day) for four days resulted in apoptosis of blastocyst-stage embryos, early embryonic developmental injury, and decreased fetal weight. Intravenous injection of dams with 5 mg/kg body weight/day rhein significantly increased the total reactive oxygen species (ROS) content of fetuses and the transcription levels of antioxidant proteins in fetal livers. Additional work showed that rhein induced apoptosis through ROS generation, and that prevention of apoptotic processes effectively rescued the rhein-induced injury effects on embryonic development. Finally, the transcription levels of the innate-immunity related genes, CXCL1, IL-1 β and IL-8, were down-regulated in the fetuses of dams that received intravenous injections of rhein. These results collectively show that rhein has the potential to induce embryonic cytotoxicity and induce oxidative stress and immunotoxicity during the development of mouse embryos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Non-Clinical Studies for Evaluation of 8-C-Rhamnosyl Apigenin Purified from Peperomia obtusifolia against Acute Edema
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1972; doi:10.3390/ijms18091972
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
Compound 8-C-rhamnosyl apigenin (8CR) induced a moderate reduction in the enzymatic activity of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but the compound also significantly inhibited the enzymatic activity of the enzyme cyclooxygenase. In vitro
[...] Read more.
Compound 8-C-rhamnosyl apigenin (8CR) induced a moderate reduction in the enzymatic activity of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but the compound also significantly inhibited the enzymatic activity of the enzyme cyclooxygenase. In vitro assays showed that the compound induced a slight change in the secondary structure of sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom. In vivo assays were divided into two steps. In the first step, the 8CR compound was administered by intraperitoneal injections 30 min prior to administration of sPLA2. In this condition, 8CR inhibited edema and myonecrosis induced by the sPLA2 activity of Crotalus durissus terrificus in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and lipid peroxidation. This has been demonstrated by monitoring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat paws after the course of edema induced by sPLA2. These results, for the first time, show that sPLA2 of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom induces massive muscle damage, as well as significant edema by mobilization of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Additionally, its pharmacological activity involves increased lipid peroxidation as well as TNF-α and IL-1β production. Previous administration by the peritoneal route has shown that dose-dependent 8CR significantly decreases the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes. This resulted in a decrease of the amount of bioactive lipids involved in inflammation; it also promoted a significant cellular protection against lipid peroxidation. In vivo experiments performed with 8CR at a concentration adjusted to 200 μg (8 mg/kg) of intraperitoneal injection 15 min after sPLA2 injection significantly reduced sPLA2 edema and the myotoxic effect induced by sPLA2 through the decrease in the enzymatic activity of cPLA2, cyclooxygenase, and a massive reduction of lipid peroxidation. These results clearly show that 8CR is a potent anti-inflammatory that inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and it may modulate the enzymatic activity of sPLA2 and cPLA2. In addition, it was shown that Crotalus durissus terrificus sPLA2 increases cell oxidative stress during edema and myonecrosis, and the antioxidant properties of the polyphenolic compound may be significant in mitigating the pharmacological effect induced by sPLA2 and other snake venom toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Selective Hematopoietic Expression of Human IL-37 on Systemic Inflammation and Atherosclerosis in LDLr-Deficient Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1672; doi:10.3390/ijms18081672
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
The human cytokine interleukin (IL)-37 has potent anti-inflammatory capacities, and hematopoietic cell-specific transgenic overexpression of IL-37 in mice protects against septic shock and colitis. In the present study we investigated the effect of hematopoietic expression of IL-37 on atherosclerosis development under low-grade inflammatory
[...] Read more.
The human cytokine interleukin (IL)-37 has potent anti-inflammatory capacities, and hematopoietic cell-specific transgenic overexpression of IL-37 in mice protects against septic shock and colitis. In the present study we investigated the effect of hematopoietic expression of IL-37 on atherosclerosis development under low-grade inflammatory conditions. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-deficient mice were lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow from IL-37-transgenic or control wild-type mice and fed a Western-type diet (WTD; 1% cholesterol) for eight weeks. Metabolic and inflammatory parameters were monitored and atherosclerosis was assessed in the aortic valve area. Hematopoietic IL-37 expression did not influence body weight, food intake and plasma cholesterol levels during the study. Plasma soluble E-selectin levels were increased with WTD-feeding as compared to chow-feeding, but were not influenced by IL-37 expression. IL-37 expression reduced the inflammatory state as indicated by reduced white blood cell counts and by reduced basal and lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine response by peritoneal macrophages ex vivo. IL-37 expression did not influence the atherosclerotic lesion area. Lesion composition was marginally affected. Smooth muscle cell content was decreased, but macrophage and collagen content were not different. We conclude that under low-grade inflammatory conditions, hematopoietic IL-37 expression reduces the inflammatory state, but does not influence atherosclerosis development in hyperlipidemic LDLr-deficient mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Pyranopyran-1,8-dione, an Active Compound from Vitices Fructus, Attenuates Cigarette-Smoke Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1602; doi:10.3390/ijms18071602
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
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Abstract
Previously, we isolated and identified pyranopyran-1,8-dione (PPY) from Viticis Fructus, as a bioactive compound possessing anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate the preventive benefit of PPY on cigarette–smoke (CS)-induced lung inflammation. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CS for 2 weeks
[...] Read more.
Previously, we isolated and identified pyranopyran-1,8-dione (PPY) from Viticis Fructus, as a bioactive compound possessing anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate the preventive benefit of PPY on cigarette–smoke (CS)-induced lung inflammation. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CS for 2 weeks while PPY was administrated by oral injection 2 h before CS exposure. To validate the anti-inflammatory effects of PPY, the numbers of immune cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were counted. Proinflammatory cytokines (Tumor necrosis factor-α: TNF-α, IL-6) and keratinocyte chemokine (KC/CXCL1) were also measured. Histopathologic analysis and cellular profiles showed that inflammatory cell infiltrations were significantly decreased in peribronchial and perivascular area by PPY treatment. The alveolar destruction by CS was markedly ameliorated by PPY treatment. In addition, the TNF-α, IL-6, and KC levels were declined in the PPY groups. These observations suggest that PPY has a preventive potential for lung inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Allyl Isothiocyanate through Attenuation of JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1423; doi:10.3390/ijms18071423
Received: 27 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), present in Wasabia japonica (wasabi), is an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from the precursor sinigrin, which is a glucosinolate present in vegetables of the Brassica family. Traditionally, it has been used to treat rheumatic arthralgia, blood circulation, and pain. This study
[...] Read more.
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), present in Wasabia japonica (wasabi), is an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from the precursor sinigrin, which is a glucosinolate present in vegetables of the Brassica family. Traditionally, it has been used to treat rheumatic arthralgia, blood circulation, and pain. This study focuses on its anti-apoptotic activity through the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, we assessed its neuroprotective efficacy, which it achieves through the upregulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Pretreatment with AITC significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) production in activated microglia, and increased the nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma cells. AITC inhibited the nuclear factor (NF-κB-mediated transcription by modulating mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, particularly downregulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, which was followed by a reduction in the TNF-α expression in activated microglia. This promising effect of AITC in controlling JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α cross-linking maintains the Bcl-2 gene family and protects neuroblastoma cells from activated microglia-induced toxicity. These findings provide novel insights into the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of AITC on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in neurodegeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1330; doi:10.3390/ijms18071330
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks,
[...] Read more.
To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG) with the lowest concentrations in the HM group (p < 0.001), consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group (p < 0.005). Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Ginkgolide A Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses In Vitro and In Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 794; doi:10.3390/ijms18040794
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 10 April 2017
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Abstract
Ginkgolide A (GA) is a natural compound isolated from Ginkgo biloba and has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases and diabetic vascular complications. However, only a few studies have been conducted on the anti-inflammatory effects of GA. In particular, no related reports have
[...] Read more.
Ginkgolide A (GA) is a natural compound isolated from Ginkgo biloba and has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases and diabetic vascular complications. However, only a few studies have been conducted on the anti-inflammatory effects of GA. In particular, no related reports have been published in a common inflammation model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of GA have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we extensively investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of GA in vitro and in vivo. We showed that GA could suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β) in LPS-treated mouse peritoneal macrophages, mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells, and differentiated human monocytes (dTHP-1) in vitro. These effects were partially carried out via downregulating Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway also seems to be important. Consistently, GA was also shown to inhibit the LPS-stimulated release of TNF-α and IL-6 in mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that GA can serve as an effective inflammatory inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Irisin, Mediator of Physical Activity, Are Connected with TLR4/MyD88 Signaling Pathway Activation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 701; doi:10.3390/ijms18040701
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1640 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Irisin, an adipomiokine known as a mediator of physical activity, induces the browning of adipose tissue and it has potentially protective properties in the development of obesity-related states, such as insulin resistance, arteriosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. Despite numerous studies conducted on this
[...] Read more.
Irisin, an adipomiokine known as a mediator of physical activity, induces the browning of adipose tissue and it has potentially protective properties in the development of obesity-related states, such as insulin resistance, arteriosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. Despite numerous studies conducted on this factor, still little is known about its impact on the functioning of immunocompetent cells, but its potential anti-inflammatory properties were previously suggested. In the current study we investigated the role of irisin (0–100 nM) in the downstream pathway activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 ng/mL). The results have shown that irisin in high concentrations (50, 100 nM) significantly decreased the TLR4 and MyD88 protein levels, as well as the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), consequently leading to the reduction in the release of crucial pro-inflammatory cytokines. The above was confirmed for interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), as well as for high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). Moreover, our results indicate that this effect is connected with irisin’s impact on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), where a significant reduction in p-JNK and p-ERK but not p-p38 was observed. In conclusion, these data suggest that irisin has potentially anti-inflammatory properties connected with the downregulation of downstream pathways of TLR4/MyD88. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Cytotoxic Effects of Aqueous Extracts from the Edible Sea Anemones Anemonia sulcata and Actinia equina
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 653; doi:10.3390/ijms18030653
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Marine invertebrates have been attracting the attention of researchers for their application in nutrition, agriculture, and the pharmaceutical industry, among others. Concerning sea anemones (Cnidaria), little is known regarding their metabolic profiles and potential value as a source of pharmacologically-active agents. In this
[...] Read more.
Marine invertebrates have been attracting the attention of researchers for their application in nutrition, agriculture, and the pharmaceutical industry, among others. Concerning sea anemones (Cnidaria), little is known regarding their metabolic profiles and potential value as a source of pharmacologically-active agents. In this work, the chemical profiles of two species of sea anemones Actinia equina and Anemonia sulcata, were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) and its impact upon immune and gastric cells was evaluated. In both species, the methylpyridinium alkaloid homarine was the major compound in aqueous extracts. The extracts were effective in reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced levels of nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a macrophage model of inflammation. Both the extracts and the alkaloid homarine were effective in inhibiting phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a pivotal enzyme in the initial steps of the inflammatory cascade. In order to mimic the oral consumption of these extracts; their effect upon human gastric cells was evaluated. While no caspase-9 activation was detected, the fact that the endoplasmic reticulum-resident caspase-4, and also caspase-3, were activated points to a non-classical mechanism of apoptosis in human gastric cells. This work provides new insights on the toxicity and biological potential of sea anemones increasingly present in human nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Elderberry and Elderflower Extracts, Phenolic Compounds, and Metabolites and Their Effect on Complement, RAW 264.7 Macrophages and Dendritic Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 584; doi:10.3390/ijms18030584
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 4 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
Modulation of complement activity and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages and dendritic cells may have therapeutic value in inflammatory diseases. Elderberry and elderflower extracts, constituents, and metabolites were investigated for their effects on the complement system, and on NO production
[...] Read more.
Modulation of complement activity and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages and dendritic cells may have therapeutic value in inflammatory diseases. Elderberry and elderflower extracts, constituents, and metabolites were investigated for their effects on the complement system, and on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages and murine dendritic D2SC/I cells. The EtOH crude extracts from elderberry and elderflower and the isolated anthocyanins and procyanidins possessed strong complement fixating activity and strong inhibitory activity on NO production in RAW cells and dendritic cells. Phenolic compounds in the range of 0.1–100 µM showed a dose-dependent inhibition of NO production, with quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol as the most potent ones. Among the metabolites, caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effects on NO production in both cell lines, without having cytotoxic effect. Only 4-methylcatechol was cytotoxic at the highest tested concentration (100 µM). Elderberry and elderflower constituents may possess inflammatory modulating activity, which increases their nutritional value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Metabolomic Analysis in Blood, Urine, Fat, and Muscle in Men with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial on the Effects of Resveratrol after Four Months’ Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 554; doi:10.3390/ijms18030554
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 26 February 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Resveratrol possesses several beneficial metabolic effects in rodents, while the effects of resveratrol in humans remain unclear. Therefore, we performed a non-targeted comprehensive metabolomic analysis on blood, urine, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle tissue in middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome randomized to either
[...] Read more.
Resveratrol possesses several beneficial metabolic effects in rodents, while the effects of resveratrol in humans remain unclear. Therefore, we performed a non-targeted comprehensive metabolomic analysis on blood, urine, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle tissue in middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome randomized to either resveratrol or placebo treatment for four months. Changes in steroid hormones across all four matrices were the most pronounced changes observed. Resveratrol treatment reduced sulfated androgen precursors in blood, adipose tissue, and muscle tissue, and increased these metabolites in urine. Furthermore, markers of muscle turnover were increased and lipid metabolism was affected, with increased intracellular glycerol and accumulation of long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n3 and n6) free fatty acids in resveratrol-treated men. Finally, urinary derivatives of aromatic amino acids, which mainly reflect the composition of the gut microbiota, were altered upon resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, the non-targeted metabolomics approach applied to four different matrices provided evidence of subtle but robust effects on several metabolic pathways following resveratrol treatment for four months in men with metabolic syndrome—effects that, for the most part, would not have been detected by routine analyses. The affected pathways should be the focus of future clinical trials on resveratrol’s effects, and perhaps particularly the areas of steroid metabolism and the gut microbiome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Sanghuangporus sanghuang Mycelium
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 347; doi:10.3390/ijms18020347
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 20 January 2017 / Published: 7 February 2017
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Abstract
Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue and oxidative injury caused by excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Studies have suggested that anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents could be used for the treatment of ALI with a good outcome.
[...] Read more.
Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue and oxidative injury caused by excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Studies have suggested that anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents could be used for the treatment of ALI with a good outcome. Therefore, our study aimed to test whether the mycelium extract of Sanghuangporus sanghuang (SS-1), believed to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, could be used against the excessive inflammatory response associated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced ALI in mice and to investigate its possible mechanism of action. The experimental results showed that the administration of SS-1 could inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. SS-1 could reduce the number of inflammatory cells, inhibit myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, regulate the TLR4/PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and the signal transduction of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the lung tissue, and inhibit high mobility group box-1 protein 1 (HNGB1) activity in BALF. In addition, SS-1 could affect the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) in the lung tissue and regulate signal transduction in the KRAB-associated protein-1 (KAP1)/nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor Nrf2/Kelch Like ECH associated Protein 1 (Keap1) pathway. Histological results showed that administration of SS-1 prior to induction could inhibit the large-scale LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration of the lung tissue. Therefore, based on all experimental results, we propose that SS-1 exhibits a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI in mice. The mycelium of S. sanghuang can potentially be used for the treatment or prevention of inflammation-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Multiple Activities of Punica granatum Linne against Acne Vulgaris
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 141; doi:10.3390/ijms18010141
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 12 January 2017
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Abstract
Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Staphylococcus aureus, and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In
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Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Staphylococcus aureus, and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In this study, we found that pomegranate extract (PG-E) significantly reduced P. acnes-induced edema in Wistar rat ears. Therefore, an evaluation platform using multiple pathogenic mechanisms of acne was established to explore the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. Results showed that PG-E inhibited bacterial growth and lipase activity. Through a bioguided-fractionation-isolation system, four hydrolysable tannins, punicalagin (1), punicalin (2), strictinin A (3), and granatin B (4), were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 had greater anti-bacterial activities and anti-testosterone-induced HaCaT proliferative effects than the others. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 displayed lipase inhibitory effects. Compound 4 decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and downregulated prostaglandin E2 production in heat-killed P. acnes-treated RAW 246.7 cells. In conclusion, PG-E is abundant in hydrolysable tannins that display multiple anti-acne capacities, including anti-bacterial, anti-lipase, anti-keratinocyte proliferation, and anti-inflammatory actions. Hence, PG-E has great potential in the application of anti-acne and skin-care products, and punicalagin (1), the most effective component in PG-E, can be employed as a quality control marker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Procyanidin A2 Modulates IL-4-Induced CCL26 Production in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1888; doi:10.3390/ijms17111888
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
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Abstract
Allergic asthma is an inflammatory lung disease that is partly sustained by the chemokine eotaxin-3 (CCL26), which extends eosinophil migration into tissues long after allergen exposure. Modulation of CCL26 could represent a means to mitigate airway inflammation. Here we evaluated procyanidin A2 as
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Allergic asthma is an inflammatory lung disease that is partly sustained by the chemokine eotaxin-3 (CCL26), which extends eosinophil migration into tissues long after allergen exposure. Modulation of CCL26 could represent a means to mitigate airway inflammation. Here we evaluated procyanidin A2 as a means of modulating CCL26 production and investigated interactions with the known inflammation modulator, Interferon γ (IFNγ). We used the human lung epithelial cell line A549 and optimized the conditions for inducing CCL26. Cells were exposed to a range of procyanidin A2 or IFNγ concentrations for varied lengths of time prior to an inflammatory insult of interleukin-4 (IL-4) for 24 h. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure CCL26 production. Exposing cells to 5 μM procyanidin A2 (prior to IL-4) reduced CCL26 production by 35% compared with control. Greatest inhibition by procyanidin A2 was seen with a 2 h exposure prior to IL-4, whereas IFNγ inhibition was greatest at 24 h. Concomitant incubation of procyanidin A2 and IFNγ did not extend the inhibitory efficacy of procyanidin A2. These data provide evidence that procyanidin A2 can modulate IL-4-induced CCL26 production by A549 lung epithelial cells and that it does so in a manner that is different from IFNγ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle GSPE Inhibits HMGB1 Release, Attenuating Renal IR-Induced Acute Renal Injury and Chronic Renal Fibrosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1647; doi:10.3390/ijms17101647
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
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Abstract
Grape seed proanthocyanindin extract (GSPE) is a polyphenolic bioflavonoid derived from grape seeds and has been widely studied for its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. HMGB1 is a newly discovered danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that has potent proinflammatory effects once released by
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Grape seed proanthocyanindin extract (GSPE) is a polyphenolic bioflavonoid derived from grape seeds and has been widely studied for its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. HMGB1 is a newly discovered danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that has potent proinflammatory effects once released by necrotic cells. However, the effect of GSPE on the HMGB1, and the relationship of those two with acute kidney injury and chronic kidney fibrosis are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impact of GSPE on acute kidney injury and chronic fibrosis. C57bl/6 mice were subjected to bilateral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and unilateral I/R with or without GSPE administration. After bilateral I/R, mice administered GSPE had a marked improvement in renal function (BUN and Cr), decreased pathological damage and reduced inflammation. In unilateral I/R, mice subjected GSPE showed reduced tubulointerstitial fibrosis and decreased inflammatory reaction. The renoprotection of GSPE on both models was associated with the inhibition of HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and release, which can amplify the inflammation through binding to its downstream receptor TLR4 and facilitated P65 transcription. Thus, we have reason to believe that GSPE could be a good alternative therapy for the prevention and treatment of IR-induced renal injury and fibrosis in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle An Inflammatory Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Culture Model to Test Molecular Regenerative Therapies: Validation with Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1640; doi:10.3390/ijms17101640
Received: 23 July 2016 / Revised: 15 September 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
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Abstract
Organ cultures are practical tools to investigate regenerative strategies for the intervertebral disc. However, most existing organ culture systems induce severe tissue degradation with only limited representation of the in vivo processes. The objective of this study was to develop a space- and
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Organ cultures are practical tools to investigate regenerative strategies for the intervertebral disc. However, most existing organ culture systems induce severe tissue degradation with only limited representation of the in vivo processes. The objective of this study was to develop a space- and cost-efficient tissue culture model, which represents degenerative processes of the nucleus pulposus (NP). Intact bovine NPs were cultured in a previously developed system using Dyneema jackets. Degenerative changes in the NP tissue were induced either by the direct injection of chondroitinase ABC (1–20 U/mL) or by the diffusion of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (both 100 ng/mL) from the culture media. Extracellular matrix composition (collagens, proteoglycans, water, and DNA) and the expression of inflammatory and catabolic genes were analyzed. The anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic compound epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG, 10 µM) was employed to assess the relevance of the degenerative NP model. Although a single injection of chondroitinase ABC reduced the proteoglycan content in the NPs, it did not activate cellular responses. On the other hand, IL-1β and TNF-α significantly increased the mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators IL-6, IL-8, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP3, and MMP13). The cytokine-induced gene expression in the NPs was ameliorated with EGCG. This study provides a proof of concept that inflammatory NP cultures, with appropriate containment, can be useful for the discovery and evaluation of molecular therapeutic strategies against early degenerative disc disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Ruscogenin Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction by Suppressing TXNIP/NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and the MAPK Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1418; doi:10.3390/ijms17091418
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 29 August 2016
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Abstract
Ruscogenin, an important steroid sapogenin derived from Ophiopogon japonicus, has been shown to inhibit cerebral ischemic injury. However, its potential molecular action on blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction after stroke remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ruscogenin on BBB
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Ruscogenin, an important steroid sapogenin derived from Ophiopogon japonicus, has been shown to inhibit cerebral ischemic injury. However, its potential molecular action on blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction after stroke remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ruscogenin on BBB dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms in middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R)-injured mice and oxygen–glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-injured mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3). The results demonstrated that administration of ruscogenin (10 mg/kg) decreased the brain infarction and edema, improved neurological deficits, increased cerebral brain flow (CBF), ameliorated histopathological damage, reduced evans blue (EB) leakage and upregulated the expression of tight junctions (TJs) in MCAO/R-injured mice. Meanwhile, ruscogenin (0.1–10 µM) treatment increased cell viability and trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) value, decreased sodium fluorescein leakage, and modulated the TJs expression in OGD/R-induced bEnd.3 cells. Moreover, ruscogenin also inhibited the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and caspase-1, and markedly suppressed the expression of Nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and thiredoxin-interactive protein (TXNIP) in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, ruscogenin decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inhibited the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in OGD/R-induced bEnd.3 cells. Our findings provide some new insights into its potential application for the prevention and treatment of ischemic stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Cleome rutidosperma and Euphorbia thymifolia Suppress Inflammatory Response via Upregulation of Phase II Enzymes and Modulation of NF-κB and JNK Activation in LPS-Stimulated BV2 Microglia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1420; doi:10.3390/ijms17091420
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 7 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 27 August 2016
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Abstract
Cleome rutidosperma DC. and Euphorbia thymifolia L. are herbal medicines used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine to treat various illnesses. Reports document that they have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in their anti-inflammatory actions have not yet been
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Cleome rutidosperma DC. and Euphorbia thymifolia L. are herbal medicines used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine to treat various illnesses. Reports document that they have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in their anti-inflammatory actions have not yet been elucidated. The anti-neuroinflammatory activities and underlying mechanisms of ethanol extracts of Cleome rutidosperma (CR) and Euphorbia thymifolia (ET) were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cell line BV2. The morphology changes and production of pro-inflammatory mediators were assayed. Gene expression of inflammatory genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukin (IL)-1β, and CC chemokine ligand (CCL)-2, as well as phase II enzymes such as heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), were further investigated using reverse transcription quantitative-PCR (RT-Q-PCR) and Western blotting. The effects of CR and ET on mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways were examined using Western blotting and specific inhibitors. CR and ET suppressed BV2 activation, down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) overproduction without affecting cell viability. They reduced LPS-mediated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-6 production, attenuated IL-1β and CCL2 expression, but upregulated HO-1, GCLM and NQO1 expression. They also inhibited p65 NF-κB phosphorylation and modulated Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK) activation in BV2 cells. SP600125, the JNK inhibitor, significantly augmented the anti-IL-6 activity of ET. NF-κB inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, enhanced the anti-IL-6 effects of both CR and ET. Znpp, a competitive inhibitor of HO-1, attenuated the anti-NO effects of CR and ET. Our results show that CR and ET exhibit anti-neuroinflammatory activities by inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediator expression and production, upregulating HO-1, GCLM and NQO1, blocking NF-κB and modulating JNK signaling pathways. They may offer therapeutic potential for suppressing overactivated microglia and alleviating neurodegeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Immunosuppressive Effect of Litsea cubeba L. Essential Oil on Dendritic Cell and Contact Hypersensitivity Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1319; doi:10.3390/ijms17081319
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 22 July 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 12 August 2016
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Abstract
Litsea cubeba L., also named as Makauy, is a traditional herb and has been used as cooking condiment or tea brewing to treat diseases for aborigines. The present study was undertaken to explore the chemical compositions of the fruit essential oil of L.
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Litsea cubeba L., also named as Makauy, is a traditional herb and has been used as cooking condiment or tea brewing to treat diseases for aborigines. The present study was undertaken to explore the chemical compositions of the fruit essential oil of L. cubeba (LCEO) and the immunomodulatory effect of LCEO on dendritic cells and mice. The LCEO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with direct injection (DI/GC) or headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME/GC). In total, 56 components were identified, of which 48 were detected by DI/GC and 49 were detected by HS-SPME/GC. The principal compounds were citral (neral and geranial). An immunosuppressive activity of LCEO was investigated with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) which have a critical role to trigger the adaptive immunity. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of LCEO on immune response was elucidated by performing the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses in mice. Our results clearly showed that LCEO decreases the production of TNF-α and cytokine IL-12 in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs. CHS response and the infiltrative T cells were inhibited in the tested ears of the mice co-treated with LCEO. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the LCEO mainly containing citral exhibits an immunosuppressive effect on DCs and mice, indicating that LCEO can potentially be applied in the treatment of CHS, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmune diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessReview Lactoferrin: A Natural Glycoprotein Involved in Iron and Inflammatory Homeostasis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1985; doi:10.3390/ijms18091985
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
Human lactoferrin (hLf), an iron-binding multifunctional cationic glycoprotein secreted by exocrine glands and by neutrophils, is a key element of host defenses. HLf and bovine Lf (bLf), possessing high sequence homology and identical functions, inhibit bacterial growth and biofilm dependently from iron binding
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Human lactoferrin (hLf), an iron-binding multifunctional cationic glycoprotein secreted by exocrine glands and by neutrophils, is a key element of host defenses. HLf and bovine Lf (bLf), possessing high sequence homology and identical functions, inhibit bacterial growth and biofilm dependently from iron binding ability while, independently, bacterial adhesion to and the entry into cells. In infected/inflamed host cells, bLf exerts an anti-inflammatory activity against interleukin-6 (IL-6), thus up-regulating ferroportin (Fpn) and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and down-regulating ferritin (Ftn), pivotal actors of iron and inflammatory homeostasis (IIH). Consequently, bLf inhibits intracellular iron overload, an unsafe condition enhancing in vivo susceptibility to infections, as well as anemia of inflammation (AI), re-establishing IIH. In pregnant women, affected by AI, bLf oral administration decreases IL-6 and increases hematological parameters. This surprising effect is unrelated to iron supplementation by bLf (80 μg instead of 1–2 mg/day), but to its role on IIH. AI is unrelated to the lack of iron, but to iron delocalization: cellular/tissue overload and blood deficiency. BLf cures AI by restoring iron from cells to blood through Fpn up-expression. Indeed, anti-inflammatory activity of oral and intravaginal bLf prevents preterm delivery. Promising bLf treatments can prevent/cure transitory inflammation/anemia/oral pathologies in athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessReview Brassica-Derived Plant Bioactives as Modulators of Chemopreventive and Inflammatory Signaling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1890; doi:10.3390/ijms18091890
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
A high consumption of vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family has been related to a lower incidence of chronic diseases including different kinds of cancer. These beneficial effects of, e.g., broccoli, cabbage or rocket (arugula) intake have been mainly dedicated to the sulfur-containing
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A high consumption of vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family has been related to a lower incidence of chronic diseases including different kinds of cancer. These beneficial effects of, e.g., broccoli, cabbage or rocket (arugula) intake have been mainly dedicated to the sulfur-containing glucosinolates (GLSs)—secondary plant compounds nearly exclusively present in Brassicaceae—and in particular to their bioactive breakdown products including isothiocyanates (ITCs). Overall, the current literature indicate that selected Brassica-derived ITCs exhibit health-promoting effects in vitro, as well as in laboratory mice in vivo. Some studies suggest anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties for ITCs which may be communicated through an activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) that controls the expression of antioxidant and phase II enzymes. Furthermore, it has been shown that ITCs are able to significantly ameliorate a severe inflammatory phenotype in colitic mice in vivo. As there are studies available suggesting an epigenetic mode of action for Brassica-derived phytochemicals, the conduction of further studies would be recommendable to investigate if the beneficial effects of these compounds also persist during an irregular consumption pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessReview Effects of Non-Starch Polysaccharides on Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1372; doi:10.3390/ijms18071372
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased considerably over the past few decades. In the present review, we discuss several disadvantages existing in the treatment of IBD and current understandings of the structures, sources, and natures of various kinds of non-starch
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The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased considerably over the past few decades. In the present review, we discuss several disadvantages existing in the treatment of IBD and current understandings of the structures, sources, and natures of various kinds of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs). Available evidences for the use of different sources of NSPs in IBD treatment both in vitro and in vivo are analyzed, including glucan from oat bran, mushroom, seaweed, pectin, gum, prebiotics, etc. Their potential mechanisms, especially their related molecular mechanism of protective action in the treatment and prevention of IBD, are also summarized, covering the anti-inflammation, immune-stimulating, and gut microbiota-modulating activities, as well as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, anti-oxidative stress accompanied with inflammation, the promotion of gastric epithelial cell proliferation and tissue healing, and the reduction of the absorption of toxins of NSPs, thus ameliorating the symptoms and reducing the reoccurrence rate of IBD. In summary, NSPs exhibit the potential to be promising agents for an adjuvant therapy and for the prevention of IBD. Further investigating of the crosstalk between immune cells, epithelial cells, and gut microorganisms in addition to evaluating the effects of different kinds and different molecular weights of NSPs will lead to well-designed clinical intervention trials and eventually improve the treatment and prevention of IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessReview Recent Advances in Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of Anti-Inflammatory Phytocompounds
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 709; doi:10.3390/ijms18040709
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 18 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
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Abstract
Phytocompounds have been used in medicine for decades owing to their potential in anti-inflammatory applications. However, major difficulties in achieving sustained delivery of phyto-based drugs are related to their low solubility and cell penetration, and high instability. To overcome these disadvantages, nanosized delivery
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Phytocompounds have been used in medicine for decades owing to their potential in anti-inflammatory applications. However, major difficulties in achieving sustained delivery of phyto-based drugs are related to their low solubility and cell penetration, and high instability. To overcome these disadvantages, nanosized delivery technologies are currently in use for sustained and enhanced delivery of phyto-derived bioactive compounds in the pharmaceutical sector. This review focuses on the recent advances in nanocarrier-mediated drug delivery of bioactive molecules of plant origin in the field of anti-inflammatory research. In particular, special attention is paid to the relationship between structure and properties of the nanocarrier and phytodrug release behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessReview Lactoferrin: Balancing Ups and Downs of Inflammation Due to Microbial Infections
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 501; doi:10.3390/ijms18030501
Received: 7 January 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
Lactoferrin (Lf) is a glycoprotein of the primary innate immune-defense system of mammals present in milk and other mucosal secretions. This protein of the transferrin family has broad antimicrobial properties by depriving pathogens from iron, or disrupting their plasma membranes through its highly
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Lactoferrin (Lf) is a glycoprotein of the primary innate immune-defense system of mammals present in milk and other mucosal secretions. This protein of the transferrin family has broad antimicrobial properties by depriving pathogens from iron, or disrupting their plasma membranes through its highly cationic charge. Noteworthy, Lf also exhibits immunomodulatory activities performing up- and down-regulation of innate and adaptive immune cells, contributing to the homeostasis in mucosal surfaces exposed to myriad of microbial agents, such as the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Although the inflammatory process is essential for the control of invasive infectious agents, the development of an exacerbated or chronic inflammation results in tissue damage with life-threatening consequences. In this review, we highlight recent findings in in vitro and in vivo models of the gut, lung, oral cavity, mammary gland, and liver infections that provide experimental evidence supporting the therapeutic role of human and bovine Lf in promoting some parameters of inflammation and protecting against the deleterious effects of bacterial, viral, fungal and protozoan-associated inflammation. Thus, this new knowledge of Lf immunomodulation paves the way to more effective design of treatments that include native or synthetic Lf derivatives, which may be useful to reduce immune-mediated tissue damage in infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessReview Modulatory Mechanism of Nociceptive Neuronal Activity by Dietary Constituent Resveratrol
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1702; doi:10.3390/ijms17101702
Received: 2 September 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 5 October 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changes to somatic sensory pathways caused by peripheral tissue, inflammation or injury can result in behavioral hypersensitivity and pathological pain, such as hyperalgesia. Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol found in red wine and various food products, is known to have several beneficial biological actions.
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Changes to somatic sensory pathways caused by peripheral tissue, inflammation or injury can result in behavioral hypersensitivity and pathological pain, such as hyperalgesia. Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol found in red wine and various food products, is known to have several beneficial biological actions. Recent reports indicate that resveratrol can modulate neuronal excitability, including nociceptive sensory transmission. As such, it is possible that this dietary constituent could be a complementary alternative medicine (CAM) candidate, specifically a therapeutic agent. The focus of this review is on the mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of resveratrol on nociceptive neuronal activity associated with pain relief. In addition, we discuss the contribution of resveratrol to the relief of nociceptive and/or pathological pain and its potential role as a functional food and a CAM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessReview Isothiocyanates Are Promising Compounds against Oxidative Stress, Neuroinflammation and Cell Death that May Benefit Neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1454; doi:10.3390/ijms17091454
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 23 August 2016 / Accepted: 29 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (831 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is recognized as the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Despite intensive research, the mechanisms involved in neuronal loss are not completely understood yet; however,
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is recognized as the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Despite intensive research, the mechanisms involved in neuronal loss are not completely understood yet; however, misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and inflammation play a pivotal role in the progression of the pathology. Neuroinflammation may have a greater function in PD pathogenesis than initially believed, taking part in the cascade of events that leads to neuronal death. To date, no efficient therapy, able to arrest or slow down PD, is available. In this context, the need to find novel strategies to counteract neurodegenerative progression by influencing diseases’ pathogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) have already shown interesting properties in detoxification, inflammation, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation through the induction of phase I and phase II enzyme systems. Moreover, ITCs may be able to modulate several key points in oxidative and inflammatory evolution. In view of these considerations, the aim of the present review is to describe ITCs as pleiotropic compounds capable of preventing and modulating the evolution of PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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