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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 938; doi:10.3390/ijms18050938

Clock Genes and Altered Sleep–Wake Rhythms: Their Role in the Development of Psychiatric Disorders

1
Pôle Hospitalo-Universitaire de Psychiatrie de l’Enfant et de l’Adolescent (PHUPEA), Université de Rennes 1, Centre Hospitalier Guillaume-Régnier, 154 Rue de Châtillon, Rennes 35000, France
2
Pôle Universitaire de Psychiatrie de l’Enfant et de l’Adolescent, Centre Hospitalier Esquirol, Limoges 87025, France
3
INSERM, U1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Limoges 87000, France
4
Aix Marseille Université, INSERM, GMGF UMR_S 910, Marseille 13385, France
5
Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception (LPP), Université Paris Descartes, CNRS UMR 8158, Paris 75270, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Merlin G. Butler
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 4 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
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Abstract

In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators) controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have a more widespread physiological effect on cognition, mood, and reward-related behaviors. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms in core circadian clock genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain to be ascertained and the cause–effect relationships are not clearly established. The objective of this article is to clarify the role of clock genes and altered sleep–wake rhythms in the development of psychiatric disorders (sleep problems are often observed at early onset of psychiatric disorders). First, the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms are described. Then, the relationships between disrupted circadian rhythms, including sleep–wake rhythms, and psychiatric disorders are discussed. Further research may open interesting perspectives with promising avenues for early detection and therapeutic intervention in psychiatric disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: clock genes; circadian rhythm; circadian clocks network; synchronization of oscillators; sleep-wake rhythm; psychiatric disorders; schizophrenia; autism spectrum disorder; mood disorders; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder clock genes; circadian rhythm; circadian clocks network; synchronization of oscillators; sleep-wake rhythm; psychiatric disorders; schizophrenia; autism spectrum disorder; mood disorders; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Charrier, A.; Olliac, B.; Roubertoux, P.; Tordjman, S. Clock Genes and Altered Sleep–Wake Rhythms: Their Role in the Development of Psychiatric Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 938.

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