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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1105; doi:10.3390/ijms18051105

The Occurrence, Biosynthesis, and Molecular Structure of Proanthocyanidins and Their Effects on Legume Forage Protein Precipitation, Digestion and Absorption in the Ruminant Digestive Tract

1,2,* and 1,*
1
Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada
2
Grasslands Research Centre, AgResearch Ltd., Tennent Drive, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1333 KB, uploaded 22 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Forages grown in temperate regions, such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and white clover (Trefolium repens L.), typically have a high nutritional value when fed to ruminants. Their high protein content and degradation rate result, however, in poor utilization of protein from the forage resulting in excessive excretion of nitrogen into the environment by the animal. Proanthocyanindins (also known as condensed tannins) found in some forage legumes such as birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), bind to dietary protein and can improve protein utilization in the animal. This review will focus on (1) the occurrence of proanthocyanidins; (2) biosynthesis and structure of proanthocyanidins; (3) effects of proanthocyanidins on protein metabolism; (4) protein precipitating capacity of proanthocyanidins and their effects on true intestinal protein adsorption by ruminants; and (5) effect on animal health, animal performance and environmental emissions. View Full-Text
Keywords: proanthocyanidins; condensed tannins; flavonoid pathway; biosynthesis; molecular structure; rumen and intestinal protein metabolism and adsorption proanthocyanidins; condensed tannins; flavonoid pathway; biosynthesis; molecular structure; rumen and intestinal protein metabolism and adsorption
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jonker, A.; Yu, P. The Occurrence, Biosynthesis, and Molecular Structure of Proanthocyanidins and Their Effects on Legume Forage Protein Precipitation, Digestion and Absorption in the Ruminant Digestive Tract. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1105.

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Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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