Neuron–Glia Crosstalk and Neuropathic Pain: Involvement in the Modulation of Motor Activity in the Orofacial Region
AbstractNeuropathic orofacial pain (NOP) is a debilitating condition. Although the pathophysiology remains unclear, accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the development of neuropathic pain. Recently, glial cells have been shown to play a key pathogenetic role. Nerve injury leads to an immune response near the site of injury. Satellite glial cells are activated in the peripheral ganglia. Various neural and immune mediators, released at the central terminals of primary afferents, lead to the sensitization of postsynaptic neurons and the activation of glia. The activated glia, in turn, release pro-inflammatory factors, further sensitizing the neurons, and resulting in central sensitization. Recently, we observed the involvement of glia in the alteration of orofacial motor activity in NOP. Microglia and astroglia were activated in the trigeminal sensory and motor nuclei, in parallel with altered motor functions and a decreased pain threshold. A microglial blocker attenuated the reduction in pain threshold, reduced the number of activated microglia, and restored motor activity. We also found an involvement of the astroglial glutamate–glutamine shuttle in the trigeminal motor nucleus in the alteration of the jaw reflex. Neuron–glia crosstalk thus plays an important role in the development of pain and altered motor activity in NOP. View Full-Text
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Hossain, M.Z.; Unno, S.; Ando, H.; Masuda, Y.; Kitagawa, J. Neuron–Glia Crosstalk and Neuropathic Pain: Involvement in the Modulation of Motor Activity in the Orofacial Region. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2051.
Hossain MZ, Unno S, Ando H, Masuda Y, Kitagawa J. Neuron–Glia Crosstalk and Neuropathic Pain: Involvement in the Modulation of Motor Activity in the Orofacial Region. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(10):2051.Chicago/Turabian Style
Hossain, Mohammad Z.; Unno, Shumpei; Ando, Hiroshi; Masuda, Yuji; Kitagawa, Junichi. 2017. "Neuron–Glia Crosstalk and Neuropathic Pain: Involvement in the Modulation of Motor Activity in the Orofacial Region." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 10: 2051.
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