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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1428; doi:10.3390/ijms18071428

Abscopal Activation of Microglia in Embryonic Fish Brain Following Targeted Irradiation with Heavy-Ion Microbeam

1
Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduated School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8562 Chiba, Japan
2
Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Quantum Beam Science Research Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 370-1292 Gunma, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microglia in Aging and Neurodegenerative Disease)
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Abstract

Microglia remove apoptotic cells by phagocytosis when the central nervous system is injured in vertebrates. Ionizing irradiation (IR) induces apoptosis and microglial activation in embryonic midbrain of medaka (Oryzias latipes), where apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is upregulated in the later phase of activation of microglia In this study, we found that another microglial marker, l-plastin (lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1), was upregulated at the initial phase of the IR-induced phagocytosis when activated microglia changed their morphology and increased motility to migrate. We further conducted targeted irradiation to the embryonic midbrain using a collimated microbeam of carbon ions (250 μm diameter) and found that the l-plastin upregulation was induced only in the microglia located in the irradiated area. Then, the activated microglia might migrate outside of the irradiated area and spread through over the embryonic brain, expressing ApoE and with activated morphology, for longer than 3 days after the irradiation. These findings suggest that l-plastin and ApoE can be the biomarkers of the activated microglia in the initial and later phase, respectively, in the medaka embryonic brain and that the abscopal and persisted activation of microglia by IR irradiation could be a cause of the abscopal and/or adverse effects following irradiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: abscopal effects; microglia; phagocytosis; l-plastin; apolipoprotein E; in situ hybridization; apoptosis; medaka; ionizing irradiation abscopal effects; microglia; phagocytosis; l-plastin; apolipoprotein E; in situ hybridization; apoptosis; medaka; ionizing irradiation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yasuda, T.; Kamahori, M.; Nagata, K.; Watanabe-Asaka, T.; Suzuki, M.; Funayama, T.; Mitani, H.; Oda, S. Abscopal Activation of Microglia in Embryonic Fish Brain Following Targeted Irradiation with Heavy-Ion Microbeam. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1428.

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