Microglia and Monocytes/Macrophages Polarization Reveal Novel Therapeutic Mechanism against Stroke
AbstractStroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and consists of two types, ischemic and hemorrhagic. Currently, there is no effective treatment to increase the survival rate or improve the quality of life after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in the subacute to chronic phases. Therefore, it is necessary to establish therapeutic strategies to facilitate functional recovery in patients with stroke during both phases. Cell-based therapies, using microglia and monocytes/macrophages preconditioned by optimal stimuli and/or any therapies targeting these cells, might be an ideal therapeutic strategy for managing stroke. Microglia and monocytes/macrophages polarize to the classic pro-inflammatory type (M1-like) or alternative protective type (M2-like) by optimal condition. Cell-based therapies using M2-like microglia and monocytes/macrophages might be protective therapeutic strategies against stroke for three reasons. First, M2-like microglia and monocytes/monocytes secrete protective remodeling factors, thus prompting neuronal network recovery via tissue (including neuronal) and vascular remodeling. Second, these cells could migrate to the injured hemisphere through the blood–brain barrier or choroid–plexus. Third, these cells could mitigate the extent of inflammation-induced injuries by suitable timing of therapeutic intervention. Although future translational studies are required, M2-like microglia and monocytes/macrophages therapies are attractive for managing stroke based on their protective functions. View Full-Text
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Kanazawa, M.; Ninomiya, I.; Hatakeyama, M.; Takahashi, T.; Shimohata, T. Microglia and Monocytes/Macrophages Polarization Reveal Novel Therapeutic Mechanism against Stroke. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2135.
Kanazawa M, Ninomiya I, Hatakeyama M, Takahashi T, Shimohata T. Microglia and Monocytes/Macrophages Polarization Reveal Novel Therapeutic Mechanism against Stroke. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(10):2135.Chicago/Turabian Style
Kanazawa, Masato; Ninomiya, Itaru; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Shimohata, Takayoshi. 2017. "Microglia and Monocytes/Macrophages Polarization Reveal Novel Therapeutic Mechanism against Stroke." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 10: 2135.
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