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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 7; doi:10.3390/ijms17010007

The Flaxseed-Derived Lignan Phenolic Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (SDG) Protects Non-Malignant Lung Cells from Radiation Damage

Department of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Division, University of Pennsylvania, 3615 Civic Center Boulevard, Abramson Research Building, Suite 1016C, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paula Andrade and Patrícia Valentão
Received: 23 November 2015 / Revised: 8 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 22 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics 2015)
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Abstract

Plant phenolic compounds are common dietary antioxidants that possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Flaxseed (FS) has been reported to be radioprotective in murine models of oxidative lung damage. Flaxseed’s protective properties are attributed to its main biphenolic lignan, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). SDG is a free radical scavenger, shown in cell free systems to protect DNA from radiation-induced damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro radioprotective efficacy of SDG in murine lung cells. Protection against irradiation (IR)-induced DNA double and single strand breaks was assessed by γ-H2AX labeling and alkaline comet assay, respectively. The role of SDG in modulating the levels of cytoprotective enzymes was evaluated by qPCR and confirmed by Western blotting. Additionally, effects of SDG on clonogenic survival of irradiated cells were evaluated. SDG protected cells from IR-induced death and ameliorated DNA damage by reducing mean comet tail length and percentage of γ-H2AX positive cells. Importantly, SDG significantly increased gene and protein levels of antioxidant HO-1, GSTM1 and NQO1. Our results identify the potent radioprotective properties of the synthetic biphenolic SDG, preventing DNA damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity of normal lung cells; thus, rendering SDG a potential radioprotector against radiation exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant; DNA damage; flaxseed; ionizing radiation; lignan; phenolic; radioprotection; SDG antioxidant; DNA damage; flaxseed; ionizing radiation; lignan; phenolic; radioprotection; SDG
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Velalopoulou, A.; Tyagi, S.; Pietrofesa, R.A.; Arguiri, E.; Christofidou-Solomidou, M. The Flaxseed-Derived Lignan Phenolic Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (SDG) Protects Non-Malignant Lung Cells from Radiation Damage. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 7.

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