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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 2591-2609; doi:10.3390/ijms16022591

Rescue Effects: Irradiated Cells Helped by Unirradiated Bystander Cells

1
Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong
2
Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China
3
State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sophie E. Eriksson
Received: 26 November 2014 / Revised: 16 December 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Radioimmunotherapy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1063 KB, uploaded 23 January 2015]   |  

Abstract

The rescue effect describes the phenomenon where irradiated cells or organisms derive benefits from the feedback signals sent from the bystander unirradiated cells or organisms. An example of the benefit is the mitigation of radiation-induced DNA damages in the irradiated cells. The rescue effect can compromise the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) (and actually all radiotherapy). In this paper, the discovery and subsequent confirmation studies on the rescue effect were reviewed. The mechanisms and the chemical messengers responsible for the rescue effect studied to date were summarized. The rescue effect between irradiated and bystander unirradiated zebrafish embryos in vivo sharing the same medium was also described. In the discussion section, the mechanism proposed for the rescue effect involving activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway was scrutinized. This mechanism could explain the promotion of cellular survival and correct repair of DNA damage, dependence on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and modulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in irradiated cells. Exploitation of the NF-κB pathway to improve the effectiveness of RIT was proposed. Finally, the possibility of using zebrafish embryos as the model to study the efficacy of RIT in treating solid tumors was also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: radioimmunotherapy; rescue effect; radiation induced bystander effect; intercellular signaling radioimmunotherapy; rescue effect; radiation induced bystander effect; intercellular signaling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lam, R.K.K.; Fung, Y.K.; Han, W.; Yu, K.N. Rescue Effects: Irradiated Cells Helped by Unirradiated Bystander Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 2591-2609.

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