Next Article in Journal
Chikusetsu Saponin V Attenuates MPP+-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells via Regulation of Sirt1/Mn-SOD and GRP78/Caspase-12 Pathways
Next Article in Special Issue
Sperm Proteases that May Be Involved in the Initiation of Sperm Motility in the Newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster
Previous Article in Journal
Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and Its Ligands: Focus on Spinal Cord Injury
Previous Article in Special Issue
Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Sperm-Oocyte Interactions Opinions Relative to in Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 13192-13208; doi:10.3390/ijms150813192

Distinct Roles of Soluble and Transmembrane Adenylyl Cyclases in the Regulation of Flagellar Motility in Ciona Sperm

Shimoda Marine Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Shimoda 5-10-1, Shizuoka 415-0025, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 11 July 2014 / Published: 28 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Sperm-Egg Interaction)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4007 KB, uploaded 28 July 2014]   |  

Abstract

Adenylyl cyclase (AC) is a key enzyme that synthesizes cyclic AMP (cAMP) at the onset of the signaling pathway to activate sperm motility. Here, we showed that both transmembrane AC (tmAC) and soluble AC (sAC) are distinctly involved in the regulation of sperm motility in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. A tmAC inhibitor blocked both cAMP synthesis and the activation of sperm motility induced by the egg factor sperm activating and attracting factor (SAAF), as well as those induced by theophylline, an inhibitor of phoshodiesterase. It also significantly inhibited cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of a set of proteins at motility activation. On the other hand, a sAC inhibitor does not affect on SAAF-induced transient increase of cAMP, motility activation or protein phosphorylation, but it reduced swimming velocity to half in theophylline-induced sperm. A sAC inhibitor KH-7 induced circular swimming trajectory with smaller diameter and significantly suppressed chemotaxis of sperm to SAAF. These results suggest that tmAC is involved in the basic mechanism for motility activation through cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation, whereas sAC plays distinct roles in increase of flagellar beat frequency and in the Ca2+-dependent chemotactic movement of sperm. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium; sperm chemotaxis; fertilization; protein kinase; protein phosphorylation calcium; sperm chemotaxis; fertilization; protein kinase; protein phosphorylation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shiba, K.; Inaba, K. Distinct Roles of Soluble and Transmembrane Adenylyl Cyclases in the Regulation of Flagellar Motility in Ciona Sperm. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 13192-13208.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top