Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 3989-4006; doi:10.3390/ijms15033989
Review

Increased Circulatory Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Multiple Organ Failure: Bile Duct Ligation in Rat as a Model

1,2,†email, 1,†email, 1,3,* email and 1,3,* email
Received: 5 December 2013; in revised form: 4 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 5 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ADMA and Nitrergic System)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Bile duct ligation (BDL)-treated rats exhibit cholestasis, increased systemic oxidative stress, and liver fibrosis, which ultimately lead to liver cirrhosis. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that can decrease the synthesis of nitric oxide. BDL rats have higher plasma and hepatic ADMA levels, which may be due to increased hepatic protein arginine methyltransferase-1 and decreased dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase expression. BDL rats also exhibit renal and brain damage characterized by increased tissue ADMA concentrations. The increased plasma ADMA levels and multiple organ damages seen here are also observed following multiple organ failures associated with critical illness. This review discusses the dysregulation of ADMA in major organs in BDL rats and the role of increased ADMA in multiple organ damages.
Keywords: asymmetric dimethylarginine; bile duct ligation; cholestasis; oxidative stress; multiple organ failure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sheen, J.-M.; Chen, Y.-C.; Tain, Y.-L.; Huang, L.-T. Increased Circulatory Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Multiple Organ Failure: Bile Duct Ligation in Rat as a Model. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 3989-4006.

AMA Style

Sheen J-M, Chen Y-C, Tain Y-L, Huang L-T. Increased Circulatory Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Multiple Organ Failure: Bile Duct Ligation in Rat as a Model. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(3):3989-4006.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung. 2014. "Increased Circulatory Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Multiple Organ Failure: Bile Duct Ligation in Rat as a Model." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 3: 3989-4006.


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