Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2876-2891; doi:10.3390/ijms15022876
Article

Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon Expression Predicts Poorer Prognosis in Low T-Stage Oral Cancer Patients

1,2,3,†email, 2,3,†email, 2,3email, 1,2,3,4email, 5,6email, 3email, 2,4,* email and 1,7,* email
Received: 24 December 2013; in revised form: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Casein kinase 1 is a group of ubiquitous serine/threonine kinases that are involved in normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions, such as DNA repair, cell cycle progression, cytokinesis, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recent studies have indicated that casein kinase 1-epsilon (CK1ε) and casein kinase 1-delta (CK1δ) expression has a role in human cancers. We investigated the associations between CK1ε and CK1δ expression and the clinical parameters of oral cancer using immunohistochemical study methods on oral squamous cell carcinoma specimens. The results of our immunohistochemical analysis showed that the loss of CK1ε expression was greatly associated with a poor four-year survival rate in oral cancer patients (p = 0.002). A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients who had a loss of CK1ε expression had a considerably poorer overall survival rate than patients who had positive CK1ε expressions (p = 0.022). A univariate analysis revealed that patients who had a loss of CK1ε expression had considerably poorer overall survival (OS) than patients who had positive expression (p = 0.024, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7). In conclusion, our data indicated that the loss of cytoplasmic CK1ε expression is greatly associated with poor survival and might be an adverse survival factor.
Keywords: casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1ε); oral cancer; overall survival
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, S.-H.; Lin, Y.-M.; Yeh, C.-M.; Chen, C.-J.; Chen, M.-W.; Hung, H.-F.; Yeh, K.-T.; Yang, S.-F. Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon Expression Predicts Poorer Prognosis in Low T-Stage Oral Cancer Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 2876-2891.

AMA Style

Lin S-H, Lin Y-M, Yeh C-M, Chen C-J, Chen M-W, Hung H-F, Yeh K-T, Yang S-F. Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon Expression Predicts Poorer Prognosis in Low T-Stage Oral Cancer Patients. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(2):2876-2891.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lin, Shu-Hui; Lin, Yueh-Min; Yeh, Chung-Min; Chen, Chih-Jung; Chen, Mei-Wen; Hung, Hsiao-Fang; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Yang, Shun-Fa. 2014. "Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon Expression Predicts Poorer Prognosis in Low T-Stage Oral Cancer Patients." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 2: 2876-2891.

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