Next Article in Journal
The Anticoagulant Effect of PGI2S and tPA in Transgenic Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Is Linked to Up-Regulation of PKA and PKC
Previous Article in Journal
Insight into Conformational Change for 14-3-3σ Protein by Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2811-2825; doi:10.3390/ijms15022811

Exposure to Atrazine during Gestation and Lactation Periods: Toxicity Effects on Dopaminergic Neurons in Offspring by Downregulation of Nurr1 and VMAT2

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1267 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

High atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) contents in the environment threaten the health conditions of organisms. We examined the effects of ATR exposure on Sprague-Dawley rats during gestation and on the dopaminergic neurons of offspring during lactation. Pregnant dams were orally treated with 0 mg/kg/day to 50 mg/kg/day of ATR from gestational day 5 to postnatal day 22. Afterward, neither offspring nor dams received ATR. Dopamine (DA) content was examined in striatum samples by HPLC-FL; the mRNA expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), orphan nuclear hormone (Nurr1), dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in the ventral midbrain samples were examined by fluorescence PCR when the offspring reached one year of age. After the pregnant rats were exposed to ATR, the DA concentrations and mRNA levels of Nurr1 were decreased in their offspring. Decreased Nurr1 levels were also accompanied by changes in the mRNA levels of VMAT2, which controls the transport and reuptake of DA. View Full-Text
Keywords: atrazine; orphan nuclear hormone; vesicular monoaminetransporter 2; dopaminergic neuron atrazine; orphan nuclear hormone; vesicular monoaminetransporter 2; dopaminergic neuron
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, Y.; Li, Y.-S.; Yang, J.-W.; Yu, J.; Wu, Y.-P.; Li, B.-X. Exposure to Atrazine during Gestation and Lactation Periods: Toxicity Effects on Dopaminergic Neurons in Offspring by Downregulation of Nurr1 and VMAT2. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 2811-2825.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top