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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2475-2493; doi:10.3390/ijms15022475
Article

Antioxidant and Protective Mechanisms against Hypoxia and Hypoglycaemia in Cortical Neurons in Vitro

1,* , 1
, 1
, 2
 and 1,*
1 Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (U.C.M.) Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040, Spain 2 Faculty of Pharmacy, Isra University, PO Box 22, Amman 11622, Jordan
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 12 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
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Abstract

In the present work, we have studied whether cell death could be induced in cortical neurons from rats subjected to different period of O2 deprivation and low glucose (ODLG). This “in vitro” model is designed to emulate the penumbra area under ischemia. In these conditions, cortical neurons displayed loss of mitochondrial respiratory ability however, nor necrosis neither apoptosis occurred despite ROS production. The absence of cellular death could be a consequence of increased antioxidant responses such as superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and GPX3. In addition, the levels of reduced glutathione were augmented and HIF-1/3α overexpressed. After long periods of ODLG (12–24 h) cortical neurons showed cellular and mitochondrial membrane alterations and did not recuperate cellular viability during reperfusion. This could mean that therapies directed toward prevention of cellular and mitochondrial membrane imbalance or cell death through mechanisms other than necrosis or apoptosis, like authophagy, may be a way to prevent ODLG damage.
Keywords: cortical neurons; cerebral ischemia; ROS formation; antioxidant defenses; mitochondrial membrane potential; free radical; SOD1/caspase-3 cortical neurons; cerebral ischemia; ROS formation; antioxidant defenses; mitochondrial membrane potential; free radical; SOD1/caspase-3
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Merino, J.J.; Roncero, C.; Oset-Gasque, M.J.; Naddaf, A.; González, M.P. Antioxidant and Protective Mechanisms against Hypoxia and Hypoglycaemia in Cortical Neurons in Vitro. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 2475-2493.

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