Next Article in Journal
Structural Data on the Periplasmic Aldehyde Oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli: SAXS and Preliminary X-ray Crystallography Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Antioxidant and Protective Mechanisms against Hypoxia and Hypoglycaemia in Cortical Neurons in Vitro
Previous Article in Journal
Three-Dimensional Stratification of Bacterial Biofilm Populations in a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor for Nitritation-Anammox
Previous Article in Special Issue
Apoptosis Signal Regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1): Potential as a Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer’s Disease
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2207-2222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15022207

Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury

1
Department of Rehabilitation Science, Graduate School of Inje University, 197 Inje-ro, Gimhae, Gyeong-nam 621-749, Korea
2
National Primate Research Center (NPRC), Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 30 Yeongudanji-ro, Ochang, Chung-buk 363-883, Korea
3
Cardiovascular & Metabolic Disease Center, College of Biomedical Science & Engineering, Inje University, 197 Inje-ro, Gimhae, Gyeong-nam 621-749, Korea
4
Department of Physical Therapy, College of Biomedical Science & Engineering, 197 Inje-ro, Gimhae, Gyeong-nam 621-749, Korea
5
Ubiquitous Healthcare Research Center, 197 Inje-ro, Gimhae, Gyeong-nam 621-749, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 November 2013 / Revised: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 24 January 2014 / Published: 30 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
Full-Text   |   PDF [889 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]

Abstract

Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (eNSPCs) proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glial cells after spinal cord injury (SCI). We have previously shown that melatonin (MT) plus exercise (Ex) had a synergistic effect on functional recovery after SCI. Thus, we hypothesized that combined therapy including melatonin and exercise might exert a beneficial effect on eNSPCs after SCI. Melatonin was administered twice a day and exercise was performed on a treadmill for 15 min, six days per week for 3 weeks after SCI. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis were used to determine cell population for late response, in conjunction with histological examination and motor function test. There was marked improvement in hindlimb function in SCI+MT+Ex group at day 14 and 21 after injury, as documented by the reduced size of the spinal lesion and a higher density of dendritic spines and axons; such functional improvements were associated with increased numbers of BrdU-positive cells. Furthermore, MAP2 was increased in the injured thoracic segment, while GFAP was increased in the cervical segment, along with elevated numbers of BrdU-positive nestin-expressing eNSPCs in the SCI+MT+Ex group. The dendritic spine density was augmented markedly in SCI+MT and SCI+MT+Ex groups.These results suggest a synergistic effect of SCI+MT+Ex might create a microenvironment to facilitate proliferation of eNSPCs to effectively replace injured cells and to improve regeneration in SCI. View Full-Text
Keywords: spinal cord injury; melatonin; functional recovery; endogenous neural stem/progenitor; therapeutic exercise spinal cord injury; melatonin; functional recovery; endogenous neural stem/progenitor; therapeutic exercise
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, Y.; Lee, S.; Lee, S.-R.; Park, K.; Hong, Y.; Lee, M.; Park, S.; Jin, Y.; Chang, K.-T.; Hong, Y. Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 2207-2222.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top