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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2207-2222; doi:10.3390/ijms15022207
Article

Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury

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Received: 18 November 2013; in revised form: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 24 January 2014 / Published: 30 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
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Abstract: Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (eNSPCs) proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glial cells after spinal cord injury (SCI). We have previously shown that melatonin (MT) plus exercise (Ex) had a synergistic effect on functional recovery after SCI. Thus, we hypothesized that combined therapy including melatonin and exercise might exert a beneficial effect on eNSPCs after SCI. Melatonin was administered twice a day and exercise was performed on a treadmill for 15 min, six days per week for 3 weeks after SCI. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis were used to determine cell population for late response, in conjunction with histological examination and motor function test. There was marked improvement in hindlimb function in SCI+MT+Ex group at day 14 and 21 after injury, as documented by the reduced size of the spinal lesion and a higher density of dendritic spines and axons; such functional improvements were associated with increased numbers of BrdU-positive cells. Furthermore, MAP2 was increased in the injured thoracic segment, while GFAP was increased in the cervical segment, along with elevated numbers of BrdU-positive nestin-expressing eNSPCs in the SCI+MT+Ex group. The dendritic spine density was augmented markedly in SCI+MT and SCI+MT+Ex groups.These results suggest a synergistic effect of SCI+MT+Ex might create a microenvironment to facilitate proliferation of eNSPCs to effectively replace injured cells and to improve regeneration in SCI.
Keywords: spinal cord injury; melatonin; functional recovery; endogenous neural stem/progenitor; therapeutic exercise spinal cord injury; melatonin; functional recovery; endogenous neural stem/progenitor; therapeutic exercise
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, Y.; Lee, S.; Lee, S.-R.; Park, K.; Hong, Y.; Lee, M.; Park, S.; Jin, Y.; Chang, K.-T.; Hong, Y. Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 2207-2222.

AMA Style

Lee Y, Lee S, Lee S-R, Park K, Hong Y, Lee M, Park S, Jin Y, Chang K-T, Hong Y. Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(2):2207-2222.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Youngjeon; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Park, Kanghui; Hong, Yunkyung; Lee, Minkyung; Park, Sookyoung; Jin, Yunho; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Hong, Yonggeun. 2014. "Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 2: 2207-2222.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert