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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 1865-1886; doi:10.3390/ijms15021865
Review

Antioxidant Drug Therapy Approaches for Neuroprotection in Chronic Diseases of the Retina

1
, 1
, 1
, 1
 and 1,2,*
1 Vision Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Missouri—Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA 2 Department of Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, University of Missouri—Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 18 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
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Abstract

The molecular pathways contributing to visual signal transduction in the retina generate a high energy demand that has functional and structural consequences such as vascularization and high metabolic rates contributing to oxidative stress. Multiple signaling cascades are involved to actively regulate the redox state of the retina. Age-related processes increase the oxidative load, resulting in chronically elevated levels of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species, which in the retina ultimately result in pathologies such as glaucoma or age-related macular degeneration, as well as the neuropathic complications of diabetes in the eye. Specifically, oxidative stress results in deleterious changes to the retina through dysregulation of its intracellular physiology, ultimately leading to neurodegenerative and potentially also vascular dysfunction. Herein we will review the evidence for oxidative stress-induced contributions to each of the three major ocular pathologies, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. The premise for neuroprotective strategies for these ocular disorders will be discussed in the context of recent clinical and preclinical research pursuing novel therapy development approaches.
Keywords: reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress; neuroprotection; age-related macular degeneration; diabetic retinopathy; glaucoma reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress; neuroprotection; age-related macular degeneration; diabetic retinopathy; glaucoma
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Payne, A.J.; Kaja, S.; Naumchuk, Y.; Kunjukunju, N.; Koulen, P. Antioxidant Drug Therapy Approaches for Neuroprotection in Chronic Diseases of the Retina. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 1865-1886.

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