Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 1865-1886; doi:10.3390/ijms15021865
Review

Antioxidant Drug Therapy Approaches for Neuroprotection in Chronic Diseases of the Retina

1email, 1email, 1email, 1email and 1,2,* email
Received: 12 November 2013; in revised form: 18 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The molecular pathways contributing to visual signal transduction in the retina generate a high energy demand that has functional and structural consequences such as vascularization and high metabolic rates contributing to oxidative stress. Multiple signaling cascades are involved to actively regulate the redox state of the retina. Age-related processes increase the oxidative load, resulting in chronically elevated levels of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species, which in the retina ultimately result in pathologies such as glaucoma or age-related macular degeneration, as well as the neuropathic complications of diabetes in the eye. Specifically, oxidative stress results in deleterious changes to the retina through dysregulation of its intracellular physiology, ultimately leading to neurodegenerative and potentially also vascular dysfunction. Herein we will review the evidence for oxidative stress-induced contributions to each of the three major ocular pathologies, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. The premise for neuroprotective strategies for these ocular disorders will be discussed in the context of recent clinical and preclinical research pursuing novel therapy development approaches.
Keywords: reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress; neuroprotection; age-related macular degeneration; diabetic retinopathy; glaucoma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Payne, A.J.; Kaja, S.; Naumchuk, Y.; Kunjukunju, N.; Koulen, P. Antioxidant Drug Therapy Approaches for Neuroprotection in Chronic Diseases of the Retina. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 1865-1886.

AMA Style

Payne AJ, Kaja S, Naumchuk Y, Kunjukunju N, Koulen P. Antioxidant Drug Therapy Approaches for Neuroprotection in Chronic Diseases of the Retina. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(2):1865-1886.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Payne, Andrew J.; Kaja, Simon; Naumchuk, Yuliya; Kunjukunju, Nancy; Koulen, Peter. 2014. "Antioxidant Drug Therapy Approaches for Neuroprotection in Chronic Diseases of the Retina." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 2: 1865-1886.


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