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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23163-23178; doi:10.3390/ijms151223163

Irisin, a Link among Fatty Liver Disease, Physical Inactivity and Insulin Resistance

1
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Department, Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, Santander 39008, Spain
2
Infection, Immunity and Digestive Pathology Group, Marqués de Valdecilla Research Institute (IDIVAL), Santander 39008, Spain
3
UCM Digestive Diseases and Ciberehd, Valme University Hospital, University of Seville, Sevilla 41014, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 October 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 1 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Molecular Mechanisms of Human Liver Diseases)
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Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The increasing prevalence of NAFLD mirrors the outbreak of obesity in western countries, highlighting the connection between these two conditions. Nevertheless, there is currently no specific pharmacotherapy for its treatment. Accepted management begins with weight loss and exercise. Moreover, exercise can provide metabolic benefits independently of weight loss. It is known how long-term aerobic training produces improvements in hepatic triglycerides, visceral adipose tissue and free fatty acids, even if there is no weight reduction. A recent study from Boström et al. unravels a potential molecular mechanism that may explain how exercise, independently of weight loss, can potentially improve metabolic parameters through a new messenger system (irisin) linking muscle and fat tissue. Irisin has been proposed to act as a hormone on subcutaneous white fat cells increasing energy expenditure by means of a program of brown-fat-like development. Moreover, it was also shown that irisin plasma concentration was higher in people who exercise, suggesting a molecular mechanism by which exercise may improve metabolism. The present systematic review is based on the possibility that irisin might represent a hypothetical connection between NAFLD pathogenesis and disease progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; insulin resistance; aerobic exercise; irisin; brown-fat-like development; muscle; FNDC5 (fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 transmembrane receptor); PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ); PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α) non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; insulin resistance; aerobic exercise; irisin; brown-fat-like development; muscle; FNDC5 (fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 transmembrane receptor); PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ); PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Arias-Loste, M.T.; Ranchal, I.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Crespo, J. Irisin, a Link among Fatty Liver Disease, Physical Inactivity and Insulin Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 23163-23178.

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