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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(11), 21299-21313; doi:10.3390/ijms151121299

Dexamethasone Improves Heat Stroke-Induced Multiorgan Dysfunction and Damage in Rats

1
Department and Institute of Cosmetic Science, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
2
Department of Pharmacy, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
3
Department of Emergency medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
4
Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
5
Department of Health and Nutrition, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
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Abstract

Dexamethasone (DXM) is known as an immunosuppressive drug used for inflammation control. In the present study, we attempted to examine whether DXM administration could attenuate the hypercoagulable state and the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, improve arterial hypotension, cerebral ischemia and damage, and vital organ failure in a rat model of heat stroke. The results indicated that all the rats suffering from heat stroke showed high serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), accompanied with increased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and D-D dimer, and decreased protein C. During the induction period of heat stroke, plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were consistently increased. High striatal levels of glycerol, glutamate, and lactate/pyruvate were simultaneously detected. On the contrary, the mean arterial pressure, plasma levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), and local cerebral blood flow at the striatum were all decreased. Importantly, intravenous administration of DXM substantially ameliorated the circulatory dysfunction, systematic inflammation, hypercoagulable state, cerebral ischemia and damage during the induction period of heat stroke. These findings demonstrated that DXM may be an alternative therapy that can ameliorate heat stroke victims by attenuating activated coagulation, systemic inflammation, and vital organ ischemia/injury during heat stroke. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat stroke; multiorgan dysfunction; dexamethasone; hypercoagulable state; cytokines heat stroke; multiorgan dysfunction; dexamethasone; hypercoagulable state; cytokines
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, C.-C.; Shih, M.-F.; Wen, Y.-S.; Lai, Y.-H.; Yang, T.-H. Dexamethasone Improves Heat Stroke-Induced Multiorgan Dysfunction and Damage in Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 21299-21313.

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