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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 17920-17937; doi:10.3390/ijms151017920

Peripheral and Central Effects of Melatonin on Blood Pressure Regulation

1
Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology and Centre of Excellence for Nitric Oxide Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava 81371, Slovak Republic
2
Department of Animal Physiology and Ethology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava 81371, Slovak Republic
3
Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava 81371, Slovak Republic
4
The Third Clinic of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava 81371, Slovak Republic
5
Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava 81371, Slovak Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2014 / Revised: 17 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 September 2014 / Published: 8 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Research of Melatonin 2014)
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Abstract

The pineal hormone, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), shows potent receptor-dependent and -independent actions, which participate in blood pressure regulation. The antihypertensive effect of melatonin was demonstrated in experimental and clinical hypertension. Receptor-dependent effects are mediated predominantly through MT1 and MT2 G-protein coupled receptors. The pleiotropic receptor-independent effects of melatonin with a possible impact on blood pressure involve the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging nature, activation and over-expression of several antioxidant enzymes or their protection from oxidative damage and the ability to increase the efficiency of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Besides the interaction with the vascular system, this indolamine may exert part of its antihypertensive action through its interaction with the central nervous system (CNS). The imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic vegetative system is an important pathophysiological disorder and therapeutic target in hypertension. Melatonin is protective in CNS on several different levels: It reduces free radical burden, improves endothelial dysfunction, reduces inflammation and shifts the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic system in favor of the parasympathetic system. The increased level of serum melatonin observed in some types of hypertension may be a counter-regulatory adaptive mechanism against the sympathetic overstimulation. Since melatonin acts favorably on different levels of hypertension, including organ protection and with minimal side effects, it could become regularly involved in the struggle against this widespread cardiovascular pathology. View Full-Text
Keywords: melatonin; hypertension; central nervous system (CNS); MT1 and MT2 receptors; reactive oxygen species (ROS) melatonin; hypertension; central nervous system (CNS); MT1 and MT2 receptors; reactive oxygen species (ROS)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pechanova, O.; Paulis, L.; Simko, F. Peripheral and Central Effects of Melatonin on Blood Pressure Regulation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 17920-17937.

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