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Oxidative Stress and Epigenetic Regulation in Ageing and Age-Related Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 17897-17925; doi:10.3390/ijms140917897
Review

Oxidative Stress in Aging-Matters of the Heart and Mind

1
, 2
 and 2,3,*
1 Department of Gerontology, Huntington University, Sudbury, ON P3E 2C6, Canada 2 Medical Sciences Division, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Sudbury, ON P3E 2C6, Canada 3 Department of Biology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, ON P3E 2C6, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 July 2013 / Revised: 10 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 2 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Ageing)
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Abstract

Oxidative damage is considered to be the primary cause of several aging associated disease pathologies. Cumulative oxidative damage tends to be pervasive among cellular macromolecules, impacting proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA of cells. At a systemic level, events subsequent to oxidative damage induce an inflammatory response to sites of oxidative damage, often contributing to additional oxidative stress. At a cellular level, oxidative damage to mitochondria results in acidification of the cytoplasm and release of cytochrome c, causing apoptosis. This review summarizes findings in the literature on oxidative stress and consequent damage on cells and tissues of the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system, with a focus on aging-related diseases that have well-documented evidence of oxidative damage in initiation and/or progression of the disease. The current understanding of the cellular mechanisms with a focus on macromolecular damage, impacted cellular pathways and gross morphological changes associated with oxidative damage is also reviewed. Additionally, the impact of calorific restriction with its profound impact on cardiovascular and neuronal aging is addressed.
Keywords: oxidative stress; RONS; cardiovascular; aging; brain oxidative stress; RONS; cardiovascular; aging; brain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Venkataraman, K.; Khurana, S.; Tai, T.C. Oxidative Stress in Aging-Matters of the Heart and Mind. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 17897-17925.

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