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Emerging Roles of Small Epstein-Barr Virus Derived Non-Coding RNAs in Epithelial Malignancy
Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, State Key Laboratory in Oncology in South China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Institute of Digestive Diseases, Li Ka-Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2013; in revised form: 1 August 2013 / Accepted: 13 August 2013 / Published: 23 August 2013
Abstract: Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is an etiological factor in the progression of several human epithelial malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and a subset of gastric carcinoma. Reports have shown that EBV produces several viral oncoproteins, yet their pathological roles in carcinogenesis are not fully elucidated. Studies on the recently discovered of EBV-encoded microRNAs (ebv-miRNAs) showed that these small molecules function as post-transcriptional gene regulators and may play a role in the carcinogenesis process. In NPC and EBV positive gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC), 22 viral miRNAs which are located in the long alternative splicing EBV transcripts, named BamH1 A rightward transcripts (BARTs), are abundantly expressed. The importance of several miR-BARTs in carcinogenesis has recently been demonstrated. These novel findings enhance our understanding of the oncogenic properties of EBV and may lead to a more effective design of therapeutic regimens to combat EBV-associated malignancies. This article will review the pathological roles of miR-BARTs in modulating the expression of cancer-related genes in both host and viral genomes. The expression of other small non-coding RNAs in NPC and the expression pattern of miR-BARTs in rare EBV-associated epithelial cancers will also be discussed.
Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC); lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the lung; lymphoepithelioma-like cholangiocarcinoma; BART; miRNAs; v-snoRNA1
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Lung, R.W.-M.; Tong, J.H.-M.; To, K.-F. Emerging Roles of Small Epstein-Barr Virus Derived Non-Coding RNAs in Epithelial Malignancy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 17378-17409.
Lung RW-M, Tong JH-M, To K-F. Emerging Roles of Small Epstein-Barr Virus Derived Non-Coding RNAs in Epithelial Malignancy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):17378-17409.
Lung, Raymond W.-M.; Tong, Joanna H.-M.; To, Ka-Fai. 2013. "Emerging Roles of Small Epstein-Barr Virus Derived Non-Coding RNAs in Epithelial Malignancy." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 17378-17409.