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Delta Opioid Receptor and Its Peptide: A Receptor-Ligand Neuroprotection
Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2013; in revised form: 15 August 2013 / Accepted: 19 August 2013 / Published: 23 August 2013
Abstract: In pursuit of neurological therapies, the opioid system, specifically delta opioid receptors and delta opioid peptides, demonstrates promising therapeutic potential for stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and other degenerative neurological conditions. Recent studies offer strong evidence in support of the therapeutic use of delta opioid receptors, and provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of action. Delta opioid receptors have been shown to confer protective effects by mediating ionic homeostasis and activating endogenous neuroprotective pathways. Additionally, delta opioid agonists such as (D-Ala 2, D-Leu 5) enkephalin (DADLE) have been shown to decrease apoptosis and promote neuronal survival. In its entirety, the delta opioid system represents a promising target for neural therapies.
Keywords: stroke; delta opioid receptors; neuroprotection; DADLE; neuronal death
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Staples, M.; Acosta, S.; Tajiri, N.; Pabon, M.; Kaneko, Y.; Borlongan, C.V. Delta Opioid Receptor and Its Peptide: A Receptor-Ligand Neuroprotection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 17410-17419.
Staples M, Acosta S, Tajiri N, Pabon M, Kaneko Y, Borlongan CV. Delta Opioid Receptor and Its Peptide: A Receptor-Ligand Neuroprotection. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):17410-17419.
Staples, Meaghan; Acosta, Sandra; Tajiri, Naoki; Pabon, Mibel; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V. 2013. "Delta Opioid Receptor and Its Peptide: A Receptor-Ligand Neuroprotection." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 17410-17419.