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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 17410-17419; doi:10.3390/ijms140917410
Review

Delta Opioid Receptor and Its Peptide: A Receptor-Ligand Neuroprotection

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Received: 30 July 2013; in revised form: 15 August 2013 / Accepted: 19 August 2013 / Published: 23 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathology and Treatment of Central Nervous System Diseases)
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Abstract: In pursuit of neurological therapies, the opioid system, specifically delta opioid receptors and delta opioid peptides, demonstrates promising therapeutic potential for stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and other degenerative neurological conditions. Recent studies offer strong evidence in support of the therapeutic use of delta opioid receptors, and provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of action. Delta opioid receptors have been shown to confer protective effects by mediating ionic homeostasis and activating endogenous neuroprotective pathways. Additionally, delta opioid agonists such as (D-Ala 2, D-Leu 5) enkephalin (DADLE) have been shown to decrease apoptosis and promote neuronal survival. In its entirety, the delta opioid system represents a promising target for neural therapies.
Keywords: stroke; delta opioid receptors; neuroprotection; DADLE; neuronal death stroke; delta opioid receptors; neuroprotection; DADLE; neuronal death
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Staples, M.; Acosta, S.; Tajiri, N.; Pabon, M.; Kaneko, Y.; Borlongan, C.V. Delta Opioid Receptor and Its Peptide: A Receptor-Ligand Neuroprotection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 17410-17419.

AMA Style

Staples M, Acosta S, Tajiri N, Pabon M, Kaneko Y, Borlongan CV. Delta Opioid Receptor and Its Peptide: A Receptor-Ligand Neuroprotection. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):17410-17419.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Staples, Meaghan; Acosta, Sandra; Tajiri, Naoki; Pabon, Mibel; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V. 2013. "Delta Opioid Receptor and Its Peptide: A Receptor-Ligand Neuroprotection." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 17410-17419.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert